Takra (Butter milk) again…..

Takra (Butter milk)

Takra is light, astringent, hot and digestive stimulant. It alleviates kapha and vata. It cures sotha (oedema), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis), arsas (piles), grahani (sprue syndrome), mutra graha (anuria), aruci (loss of taste), gulma (phantom  tumour), plihana (splenic disorder), ghrta vyiipat (complications because of wrong administration of ghee) and pandvamaya (anemia).



Takra is of three types depending upon the content of fat which  is either completely removed, half removed or not re­moved at all.

The first variety from which fat is completely removed is light and wholesome. The second variety from which half of the fat is removed is  exceedingly heavy and aphrodisiac. The third variety from which fat is not removed is exceedingly aphrodisiac.

 The properties of the different types of dadhi prepared from the milk of different animals are also shared by the takra prepared out of them.

 By the great sages like Sushruta, takra is described to be of four types  viz., ghola, mathita, udasvit and takra. The butter­ milk which contains cream and to which water not added is called ghola. When the cream is removed but no water is added then it 1s called mathita. When one fourth quantity of water is added then it is called takra. In udasvit half the quantity of water is added.

 Takra alleviates all the three doshas. Udasvit aggravates kapha, promotes strength and alleviates fatigue par excellence.

Property of different types

Buttermilk prepared of the manda variety of dadhi is un­unctuous, abhisyandi (obstructs the channels of circu­lation), and difficult of digestion.

 Buttermilk prepared of  the  sweet variety of dadhi is unctuous. It aggravates kapha and alleviates vayu and pitta.

Buttermilk prepared of the sour variety of dadhi alleviates vayu. Buttermilk prepared of dadhi which is extremely sour, aggravates rakta (blood) and pitta.

The heaviness of takra progressively increases depending upon the increase in density.


When there is aggravation of vayu, sour variety of takra should be taken by adding rock salt. In pitta. sweet variety  of takra  should  be taken  mixed with sugar. In kapha the un­-unctuous variety of takra should be used by adding alkalies, sunthi, pippali and  marica. In mutrakrcchra (dysuria), guda should be added and in pandu citraka should be added to the takra.

 If hingu and jira are added and the powder of rock salt is sprinkled over takra, then it becomes an excellent alleviator of vayu. It also becomes an excellent curative for arsas (piles) and atisara (diarrhoea).  It is an appetiser, nourishing  and strength promoting. It also cures colic pain in the region of vasti (urinary bladder).

Process of preparation

Unboiled  (ama)  takra alleviates Kapha in  the koshta (colon) but produces kapha in the throat.  The boiled (pakva) takra is specifically useful in pinasa (chronic cold), svasa and kasa (bronchitis).

Properties in general

Takra works like ambrosia in winter season, when there is suppression of the power of digestion, in the diseases caused by kapha and vayu, in aruci (anorexia) and srotorodha (obstruc­tion to the channels of circulation).  It cures diseases caused by kapha, cchardi (vomiting), praseka (salivation), visama jvara (irregular fever),  pandu (anemia), medas (adiposity), grahani (sprue syndrome), arsas (piles),  mutragraha (suppression of urination), bhagandara (fistula-in-ano), meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes), gulma (phantom  tumour), atisara (diarrhoea), sula (colic pain),  plihana (splenic disorder), udara (obstinate abdominal disorders including ascitis), aruci (ano­rexia), svitra (leucoderma), kotha (urticaria), ghrta vyiipat (complications arising out of improper use of ghee), kustha (obstinate skin diseases  including leprosy), sopha (oedema), trsna (morbid thirst) and krmi (parasitic infection),


 Takra should not be used in ksata (phthisis), during hot season, when a person is weak and in murrcha (fainting), bhrama (giddiness), daha (burning syndrome) and raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding of different parts of the body).


A person who habitually takes  takra never suffers and being impregnated with takra diseases do not attack him. As ambrosia gives  happiness to the gods, so also takra produces happiness in human beings on this earth.

 It cures vayu because of its sour taste, pitta because of its sweet taste and kapha because of its astringent taste.








Swastavritta 5

In continuing the posts on Swastavritta, we come to the third pillar of brahmacharya.

Brahma means Brahman/God or the absolute/eternal, achar means the way/the path. To be a Brahmachari, practising Brahmacharya, means to walk in the path or lifestyle adopted to enable one to attain the ultimate reality that was set down in the Rig Veda and in the Upanishad. That is the true meaning of Brahmacharya. To practice brahmacharya in the mundane world today it is different as it is taken out of that context but still means one must exercise some form of control. That control is about eating, it is about sleeping, is about drinking, and it is about sex so we see that brahmacharya in the mundane context is a larger and broader idea and not just about celibacy or ‘maintaining sexual energy’ and it has been coined today.

There is the higher context of brahmacharya that is of complete celibacy and is not for householders, it is not for married people. It is for ascetics (something that there is no context or container for in the Western world) where they go through severe asceticism, severe austerities, whereby they sublimate the sex energy, which is one of the strongest urges in a human being, and sublimate that energy into light through special practices. In Yagnyavalkya Smritti it is broken down into eight factors that are to be considered sex that are to be controlled. They are: memory of female by male or vice versa, talking about qualities of, to indulge in playing with, to look at, talking in a lonely place with, to preparing for coitus, to attempt or effort in, and the actual act of coitus or sexual intercourse. Let’s get real here, that is for ascetics, not for the householder or modern world constant sex on the mind mundane humans. When one represses energies and they are not fit, ready, not having the abilities, the lifestyle, the cultural context, or knowledge on how to sublimate those energies, it will result in destruction of the person and their life.

Brahmacharya shabden indriya sayyamsaumanasya prabhritayo brahmagyananuguda grihyante.
Chakrapani tika Charaka Su. 11.35
This term has been given for control over senses, purity of mind and conducts towards goal to Brahma. It has been advised to be used very tactfully as excess use or even non use leads to psychic disturbances.

There is lots of confusion in the world when we step into and take on a different culture’s paradigm and try to put it on like new clothes on our own paradigm in which it has no context in. The danger of this is the damage it does to the individual as a dog cannot be a cat no matter how much it tries. Much less, it does not help when oodles of people write books on the subject from their own opinion and bias and the masses then just pick up those books and read them naively without the bigger knowledge of paradigm and context in which it comes from. “Strictly following or adopting the path to reach Brahma (God).” In this path, the individual needs to conserve his semen which adds to his strength and takes him closer to the supreme soul. Loss of semen is the biggest obstacle in the path of brahmacharya. In the Ramayana, Lord Rama’s younger brother Laxmana had maintained brahmacharya during his stay with his brother during his fourteen years stay in the forest for which he was very powerful due to preservation of semen and able to destroy evil powers. Also in the Ramayana, there is a description of Hanuman, who had also followed the path of brahmacharya and hence it is considered the most powerful. The Mahabharata states Kamachari (kama = enjoyment) is one who is always indulged in sensory amusement but brahmachari keeps a control over his senses.

Brahmacharya also refers to one of the four stages of life in the age based social system as principled in the Veda. Everyone was required to practice Brahmacharya during their educational period of fourteen to twenty years but sages and saints practiced the entire life till they left their body.

When we speak of real Yoga and Yogis, the text of Yoga Sutras of Patanjali starts with the word Atha. This is not a mistake of words as sanskrit is a detailed language. Atha means that now the person has now reached a level of development and capacity for the actual study and life to now be able to receive the teachings that are going to be expounded. In Yoga set down by Patanjali, brahmacharya is complete celibacy and is a method opted for conquering of the chitta.

Of course there are other paths of Yoga like in Tantra but even there there is no sexual excessiveness much to the chagrin of what is being taught today in the masses but that is the modern world for you. Tantric texts actually contain NO teachings or techniques on how to enhance or prolong sexual pleasure and how many books are written out there by the pseudo spiritual marketing and sales world to the naive masses about just the this? This just depicts the truth of the modern world. Where is the context or container in this Western paradigm when everything in the modern world is based in subconscious marketing of sexuality, food, and excessive desire fulfilment where examples like Pokimon Go and focus on celebrities and what they are wearing show just how undeniably disconnected we are. It is the paradigm, even in the Western yoga world you have the same celebritism and yoga fashion wear.

In the Hatha Yoga Pradipika
cittäyattam nrnäm sukram sukräyattam ca jivitam |
tasmäc chukram manas caiva raksanéyam prayatnatah ||4.90
A man’s semen can be controlled by the mind and control of semen is life giving. Therefore, his semen and mind should be controlled and conserved.
Then it gives instructions of practices of sublimation.

For a householder or mundane people what we are really talking of walking in the path of divine righteousness, fidelity in marriage, and chastity. It is who has completely eradicated lust and is established in mental control, they have to exercise all forms of control within them self.

Abstinence is refraining one’s mind and body in indulgence of sex and desire related matters. At the outset, it appears as if it covers only physical aspect. But it also covers the mental aspect. If you indulge in sex, there is lack of abstinence at the same time, if you imagine about having sex, then also there is lack of abstinence. The mental realm is a subtle realm and is impacted in the energy realm. It is almost near to impossible for common people to practice abstinence at the highest level but it is possible to follow abstinence at certain levels based on one’s own capacity and comfort.

It is interesting to note that this abstinence is also found in Christianity, Islamic, and Buddhist texts as well.

In Ayurveda, a knowledge base from five thousand years ago, they knew that semen is derived from marrow (which has only now been “discovered” by modern science). Semen is formed from flesh and blood in stepwise manner. Blood is formed from food. Therefore, semen is derived from food in a multistep process of purification and filtration. During each step of this process there occurs forty times condensation and ultimately one drop of semen is formed from 40 drops of bone marrow. Due to these reasons, semen is considered as highly precious body fluid. Among all dhatus, shukra is last formed dhatu and its preservation leads to healthy life. Shukra has been considered to be specialised converted product of food. Not following brahmacharya leads to excessive loss of shukra dhatu leading to Shukra Kshaya (depletion of reproductive tissues). Semen also attributes to physical beauty, physical strength (energy) and mental strength (intelligence and memory). Loss of semen leads to loss of happiness, loss of memory, loss of vigor and depletion. Obstruction of semen by suppressing the erotic impulses gives rise to loss of libido in long run unless done thru proper spiritual practices. Both obstruction of semen and loss of semen over time give rise to impotency.

As everything has its context, brahmacharya in Ayurveda is means to a balanced and healthy sex and worldly life. It’s rules guide the indulgence in sex and similar worldly acts. The practice promotes life and preserves health and as such is an important practice. Carnal desires and their timely satisfaction play a very important role in maintaining good health and promoting longevity in adult individuals. Ayurveda never dictates voluntarily suppressing this urge as it invites diseases but gives emphasis on the controlled indulgence of sex. Sexual maturity starts by the twelfth year in girls and in twenty first year in boys. It is advisable for them to avoid sex, marriage, and conception till the age of sixteen and twenty five years of age, respectively, because the internal organs and tissues are not fully matured until this time in each.

Generally the frequency of indulgence depends on age, moods, surroundings, nutrition, and willingness of the other partner.

Indulgence is advised in winter, one can do vyavaya (coitus) as per will. In Spring season to one’s physical capacity and age permits. Charaka advises to avoid sexual contact in summer and late summer as it is ill advised during monsoon. Do not exceed in summer the extent of once in two weeks. This is done to save the vital energy from draining out of the body and to avoid physical over exertion.

Sex is contraindicated for a person who is physically over-stressed, mentally not prepared, worried or tense, suffering from fever, suffering from prolonged systemic disease, having a venereal disease, when the surroundings are not good, and if the partner is not willing. All these factors may lead to a physical or sexual problem and can cause disease due to imbalance. Women are to avoid sex during menstruation, during early or late pregnancy, and after menopause. While for men should abstain from sex after 50 years of age. In old age (70 +), if someone is indulgent after the age of seventy they will suffer depletion of tissues and harmful results.

Excessive coitus is contraindicated to health as it leads to pain, cough, fever, difficulty in breathing, emaciation, anemia, and decreased immunity.

Now I know from my experience of people’s reaction in the modern world than much of this is disagreed with for their own bias and reasons which only shows the level of what we are in the Western world today and the level of imbalance of the mind of the culture. The reasons of these guidelines in Ayurveda is all based in the knowledge of health of the individual and the deeper knowledge behind each stated is known in understanding the elements in the foundations that make up Ayurveda.

If one practices absolute abstinence for a period of 12 years continuous, a nadi develops in the brain which leads to multi-fold improvement in concentration, memory and courage. Abstinence is the fuel for spiritual journey and there is no spirituality without abstinence.


This concludes the posts on three pillars of Swastavritta.

Swastavritta 4

in our fourth part of Swastavritta we now start the second of the three pillars of health, SLEEP.

Sleep is as important as food and one of the adharniya vega. (urges not to be suppressed)
Sleep is the mental operation having the cognition of absence for its grasp.
Sleep is nothing but temporary loss of contact with organs of sense and organs of action (Su. Su. 15/40)


Physiology of Sleep

Charaka states that when the man, including senses, are exhausted and they dissociate themselves from their objects, then the individual sleeps.
When mind as well as soul get exhausted or become inactive and the organs of sense and organs of action become inactive then the individual gets sleep. Sleep is nothing but the location of the man in a place unconnected with the senses and action organs. In the event of the exhaustion of the mind, the individual is dependent on that of the mind; so when mind dissociates itself from its objects, individual also dissociates themselves from their objects.


The doshic reason of sleep is that the sensory channels and kapha with tamas cause sleep (Su. Sha. 4/6). Another reason is due to fatigue of senses and mind causes sleep (As. Su. 9/7).
The third reason is that it is just the natural instinct which is the healthiest of the three.


General principles of sleep

When tamas increases person sleeps
When satva increases person wakes up
Tamas and satva qualities alternatively are responsible for sleep and awakening
Sushruta Su 5


There are 10 classifications of sleep.
Normal daily routine sleep. This as a natural phenomenon occurs as a part of our daily life, generally at the end of the day i.e during the night..which is the natural time to sleep..in natural conditions and normal health. This form of sleep is good for health. It keeps us physically and mentally fit for the daily schedules.
Sleep occurring due to the disturbances of the mind or due to mental exhaustion.
Abnormal type of sleep either in excess or in a disturbed form occurring as an effect of long standing illness or due to the effect of a disease process. This needs a medical intervention and gets right when the pathology behind it is attended to.
Sleep occurring due to physical exertion.
Sleep occurring due to the predominance of Kapha- one of the 3 essential humoral factors governing the body functions. Generally those who are of the Kapha predominant constitution tend to sleep more than the other Vata and Pitta constitutions. Excessive sleep is also seen in the diseases of Kapha predominance…which is pathological. When the causative disease is dealt with, sleep pattern will get synchronised.
Sleep caused due to a trauma or injury involving head.
Sleep occurring due to the predominance of the Tamasika guna in the mind…which generally tends to calm the mind and also cause sleep.
Sleep occurring as an effect of our sins.
Sleep which occurs in the form of a disease.
Sleep occurring at the end part of our life i.e death..which is a permanent form of sleep ending our life process.


When an individual is deficient of sleep it will create unhappiness, emaciation, weakness, impotency, impairment knowledge or unwise, and otherwise destroys the life.


Sleeping during the day is contraindicated except for those who are tired due to singing, studying, one who takes alcohol and intoxification, due to sexual intercourse, from purification procedures, weightlifting and exercise, fatigue due to indigestion, weak due to injury, those that are weak, the old aged, a child, suffering from thirst (a disease called trishna), fatigued due to excess loose stools, suffering from pain in the abdomen, from breathing difficulty, from hiccough, emaciated, fallen, injured, insanity, fatigued, travelling, one that has stayed awake at night, and one who is emotionally stuck full of anger or grief or fear.

In summer, being the part of adana kala, there is mainly dryness and vata dosha accumulates and aggravates. The duration of night time is short and thus day sleep is advised by the ayurvedic texts. They also expound upon who day sleep is advised for but it is only for a limited time of one kala. These people are children, old aged, emaciated, one who takes alcoholic drinks daily, one who travels, who is tired due to walking, who who does not take food on time, one who has less fat, one who sweats less, one of less kapha, depleted blood or rasa dhatu. Taking a nap by these conditions leads to a rebalancing of body tissues, gives strength, the kapha gained nourishes the body parts, and it increases the lifespan.

It is contraindicated to sleep during the day in all the other seasons as it vitiates kapha and pitta, by the obese, one that is of kapha prakriti, who are addicted to taking oily substances, having kapha disease, and those with cumulative toxicity.

Sleeping during the day causes advanced stage of jaundice, headache, stiffness, heaviness in the body, body pain, it destroys the agni, gives a feeling as if something is applied around the chest, creates swelling and edema, tastelessness, creates excessive salivation, gives congestion and colds, migraines, urticaria and rashes, itching, sleepiness or sluggishness, cough, diseases of throat, failure of memory and intelligence, obstruction in the micro channels, fever, inefficiency of the sense organs, and it increases the speed of poison to spread.


To increase sleep one can do abhyanga, proper rubbing the body with powdered herbs, bathe, eating meat soup (without the meat) of animals of dry land, marshy land,and aquatic animals, eating rice, curd, milk, oil, alcoholic drinks. Create happiness in the mind, doing a treatment to the eyes in which oil is held in a dam build around the eyes, or a medicated paste on head.

What reduces sleep is inducing purgation through bowel, excretion from head with specified procedure, inducing vomiting, fear or sadness or anger, doing smoke inhalation of medicinal plants, physical exercise, blood letting, fasting, weight reducing procedures, engaging in work, diseases, vata dosha imbalances, increasing satva guna or decreasing tama guna.


Swapna – Dreams

From Ayurveda’s understanding of dreams are when the waking functions of the mind are hindered in the sleep by tamas, at a stage when the rajo guna increases and the mind cognizes the content as if in the waking state but without any contact of the senses with the sense organs.


Insomnia is created by aggravation of vata and pitta, mental agony, and weakness due to injury. It can be treated by oil application on body or on the head, by rubbing the body with medicated powders or simply a gentle rubbing of the body. One can eat rice, wheat, foods prepared by flours, foods processed with sugarcane, eating sweet and oily foods, drinking milk, drinking meat soup (without the meat) of the animals living in burrows, eating grapes, candy sugar and sugarcane preparations at night.

To treat excessive sleep vomiting purification procedures are followed, fasting, blood letting, and creating sadness of the mind.

Only in kapha diseases, obesity, and in poisoning one is indicated to staying awake at night.


Swastavritta 3

We continue our third part to Swastavritta talking more about the details of food and how to eat.


Sequencing tastes during a meal

Consume food with full concentration.

Sweet is eaten first which pacify increased vata.
Sour & salt is second to be eaten which increases agni for easy digestion.
Bitter & astringent is had after which reduces excessive pitta.


Sequence of the food eaten

Hard food should be taken with ghee, water is to be taken during and at the end of the meals in small amounts and not cold
Amalaki (indian gooseberry) can be consumed before, during & after meals
Milk is good after meals but not curd
Pitta is aggravated by sour, salt, and pungent food, will be pacified by a small amount of sweet at the end of meals. This is why sugar and fennel is had after a meal at an indian restaurant. We are not talking about dessert after a meal here.


Saatmya, Asatmya and Oksatmya

Saatmya is the one which is conducive to oneself.
Asatmya is non-conducive to oneself
Oksatmya is that which became conducive due to consistent use. This is the knowledge behind why someone can do something unhealthy for their whole life and it does not effect their health where as someone else it effects their health.


Incompatible foods

Food, drinks & medicines which dislodges dosha from its site, but does not expel it out
They vitiates dhatu (tissues) and produces diseases
Viruddahara is unwholesome to body and it may act as acute and chronic poison


Influenceable Factors incompatible foods

Bowel  Health
State of health
Order of intake
Rules of intake
Psychological factors

Eating fish along with milk is Abhishyandi (great obstructor of the channels), it vitiates blood and is great if you want skin diseases. Abhishandi food substances clog channels and produces tissues that are in excess of moisture hence ready for diseases of that nature. Mushrooms, sprouts, etc… are abhishandi in nature

After eating radish, garlic or basil one should not take milk because it causes skin disorders

All sour liquids are incompatible to milk for obvious reasons

Hot honey taken by a person induces toxicity and leads to death. Likewise honey and ghee in equal quantity.

Potency incompatibility
Ex. Fish and milk. Fish is heating and wet in nature, milk is cold.

Processing incompatibility
Heating honey brings out the natural poisonous qualities of it.

Quantity incompatibility
Honey and cow’s ghee mixed in equal proportion.

Action incompatibility – Hot water after taking honey

Time incompatibility – Pungent substance (because it aggravates vata) in summer & cold substances (aggravates kapha) in winter

Order incompatibility – Consuming curd at night. You will wake in the AM with congestion and cold

Combination incompatibility – Fruit salad or fruit with anything else. Like banana and milk

Contraindication incompatibility  – Consuming cold water immediately after having hot tea or coffee.


Diseases caused due to these incompatibilities

It is the etiology of various diseases like Sterility, Blindness, Erysipelas, Herpes, Ascites, Eruptions, Insanity, Anal fissure/fistula, Fainting, Intoxication, Tympanitis, Gaseous distension, Spasmodic obstruction in throat, Anemia, Poisoning due to Ama (food poisoning), Many types of skin disease, Sprue syndrome, Edema, Hyper acidity, Fever, Rhinitis, Congenital anomalies and even death.
Among this Erysipelas and Herpes, Eruptions, Fainting, intoxication, Gaseous Distension, Spasmodic Obstruction in throat, Poisoning due to Ama are acute in nature.
Anaemia, Types of skin disease, Sprue Syndrome, Oedema, Hyper acidity, Fever, Rhinitis, Congenital anomalies and Death are to be considered as chronic diseases.


Sankhya Karika


Due to the affliction of threefold distress, the inquiry into its removal [arises]; [if said to be] pointless because obvious [methods exist], this is not so, for such methods are neither singularly directed nor conclusive.


The heard [method] is like the obvious, as it is conjoined with impurity, corruption, and excess. The superior and opposite of that [comes] from the discrimination of the manifest, the unmanifest, and the knower.


Mulaprakrti is uncreated; the seven – ‘the great’ (mahat) and the others – are creative and created; the sixteen, meanwhile, are [merely] created; purusa is neither creative nor created.


The attainment of knowledge is based on [certain] ways of knowing; the accepted ways are three – perceiving, inferring and reception of verbal testimony – as these cover all ways of knowing.


Perceiving is the discernment of particular objects; inference, which is said to be threefold, is the tracing of the mark-bearer from its indicating mark; reception of verbal testimony, meanwhile, is reception of sruti.


Inference by analogy ascertains what is beyond the sense-capacities; and what is unaccomplishable even by that is established by verbal testimony.


[Something may be imperceptible] due to: remoteness, closeness, sensory impairment, instability of mind, subtlety, obscuration, suppression, similarity with something else.


The non-apprehension of that [i.e. prakrti] is due to subtlety, not non-existence; it is apprehended by means of its effects. Its effects – mahat and the others – are both with and without the nature (rupa) of prakrti.


The [formally] existent [is] an effect due to: the non-causation of non-being; the apprehension of a material cause; the non-production of everything [from everything]; the possibility of causation [only] from that which is capable; and the nature of the cause.


The manifest is caused, temporal, spatially limited, active, non-singular, dependent, a cipher, composite, conditioned; the unmanifest is the opposite.


The manifest as well as pradhana (i.e. the unmanifest) are tripartite, undiscriminated, objectual, universal, non-conscious, productive; and puman (i.e. purusa) is the opposite of these.


Of the nature of gladness, perturbation and stupefaction; serving to illuminate, activate and restrain; the strands (gunas) subjugate, support, generate and combine with one another.


Sattva is light and illuminating; rajas is impelling and moving; tamas is heavy and delimiting; and their purpose is to function like a lamp.


Undiscriminatedness and the other [qualities] are established due to the tripartition, and to the non-existence [of the three gunas] in the opposite of that. The unmanifest is established [as having the same nature as the manifest] due to the guna-nature of the effect being also that of the cause.


Due to: the finitude of differentiated [objects], homogeneity, the procession from potency, the distinction between cause and effect, and the undivided form of the world the unmanifest is the cause, productive due to the combination of the three gunas,  and  transformable  fluidly  in  accordance  with  the  specific  abode [character?] of each of the gunas.


Purusa exists due to: composites [being] for anothers sake, the opposite of the three gunas etc., [the need for] a controller, [the need for] an enjoyer, and the process [being] for the purpose of aloneness.


Due to various patterns of birth, death, and capacities, and to the disjunction of activities, purusas multiplicity is established; and also due to contrariety of the three gunas.


And thus, due to [its being] the opposite [of prakrti], the witnessing, aloneness, equanimity, awareness and inactivity of purusa is established.


Due to the conjunction of those [two, i.e. purusa and prakrti] the non-conscious likga appears as though conscious, and similarly, owing to the activity of the gunas, the non-engaged appears as though active.


For the purpose of perceiving pradhana, and for the purpose of purusa’s aloneness, the two [come together] like the blind and the lame; that conjunction is creation, emergence.


From prakrti [comes] the great; from that, egoity; and from that, the group of sixteen; again, from five of those sixteen, [come] the five elements.


Buddhi is discernment, its lucid (sattvika) form [comprising] dharma, knowledge, non-attachment, [and] masterfulness, and its darkened (tamasa) form [comprising] the opposite.


The thought of self is egoity; from that, a twofold emergence proceeds, namely the group of eleven and the five tanmatras.


The lucid (sattvika) eleven proceed from the modified egoity; from the source of the elements, which is opaque (tamasa), the tanmatras [proceed]; from the fiery (taijasa), both [proceed].


Sense-capacities is the term for seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching; voice, hand, foot, anus and underparts are called action-capacities.


In this regard, of the essence of both is mind (manas), which is synthesis and is, due to its similarity, a capacity. Variousness and external differences are due to the specific modifications of the gunas.


The operation (vrtti) of the five [sense-capacities] is held to be bare awareness of sound and so forth; speaking, grasping, walking, excreting and [sexual] pleasure are [the operations of] the five [action-capacities].


Each of the three is distinguished by its own operation, which manifests differently [from those of the other two]. Their common operation consists in the five vital currents, [namely] praja and the others.


The operation of the four with regard to what is present to perception is both instantaneous and progressive; while in the case of what is imperceptible, the operation of the three is preceded by that [i.e. by the perception of a present object].


The respective operations are performed in co-operation with one another from a common impulse, the sole end being that of purusa; nothing else activates the instrument.


The instrument, comprising thirteen parts,  is grasping, holding and illuminating; and its object (karya), which is tenfold, is grasped, held and illuminated.


The inner instrument is threefold, the outer is tenfold [and] is held to be the domain of the three; the outer [operates in] the present moment [alone], the [inner] instrument in all three times.


Of these, the five sense-capacities have specific and non-specific objects; the voice manifests sound-phenomena whereas the other remaining [action- capacities] have [all] five modes of phenomena.


Because buddhi along with the other inner instruments is immersed in all objects, the threefold instrument is the chamber, the rest being the doorways.


These specifications of the gunas, distinct from one another, present the whole [world] to buddhi, illuminating it like a lamp for the sake of purusa.


[This is] because buddhi gives rise to every particular enjoyment of the purusa

and, furthermore, discloses the subtle [difference] between pradhana and purusa.


The modes of sensory content (tanmatras) are non-specific; from these five [come] the five elements; these are regarded as specific, and as tranquil, disturbing and delusive.


Subtle, born of mother and father, and elemental are the three specific types; of these, the subtle are permanent, [whereas those] born of mother and father are corruptible.


The likga is already existent, unrestricted, permanent, comprising ‘the great’ and the rest, down to the subtle;  wandering without enjoyment, endowed with dispositions (bhavas).


Just as there is no picture without a support and no shadow without a post or suchlike, so the likga does not exist without the support of the specific.


This likga, motivated for the sake of purusa, by means of the association of causes and effects, and due to its connection with the manifestness of prakrti, performs like a dancer.


The dispositions, [namely] dharma and the rest, both natural and acquired, are perceived to abide in the instrument, and the embryo and so forth abide in the object (or effect, karya).


By means of virtue (dharma) there is movement upwards, by means of non- virtue (adharma) there is movement downwards; by means of knowledge liberation is attained, and bondage is due to the opposite.


Prakrtis dissolution occurs as a result of non-attachment, wandering is due to attachment, which is impulsive; removal of obstructions is due to master-fulness, the reverse of that is due to the opposite.


This is the emergence of mental phenomena (pratyaya), comprising delusion, weakness, contentment and excellence; and these are divided into fifty kinds according to the respective imbalance of the gunas.


There are five kinds of delusion, and twenty-eight kinds of weakness due to defects in the instrument; contentment is ninefold, excellence eightfold.


There are eight kinds of dullness, and also of perplexity, ten kinds of great perplexity; depression is eighteen-fold, as is intense depression.


Impairments to the eleven capacities along with buddhi are said to constitute weakness; impairments to buddhi are seventeen, due to the opposites of contentment and excellence.


Nine modes of contentment are distinguished; four are internal, concerning respectively disposition (or natural constitution, prakrti), acquisition, time and fortune; five are external, due to abstinence from [sensory] objects.


The eight ways of attaining excellence are: reasoning, [reception of] verbal instruction,  study,  eradication  of  the  threefold  distress,  friendliness,  and generosity; the previous three are hindrances to excellence.


Without the dispositions (bhavas) the likga cannot operate, and without the likga the dispositions cannot operate; therefore a dual emergence proceeds, distinguishable as likga and disposition.


There are eight varieties of divine beings and five of [non-human] natural beings; mankind is singular; such, in brief, is the elemental realm (sarga).


The upper realm is pervaded by luminosity (sattva), and the base is pervaded by opacity (tamas); the middle is pervaded by activity (rajas); [such is the case] from Brahma down to a blade of grass.


Purusa, consciousness, acquires there the suffering created by decay and death until its deliverance from the likga; hence ones own nature is associated with distress.


This prakrti-creation, from the great down to the specific elements, is for the sake of the liberation of each purusa, for the others benefit as though for its own.


Just as the profusion of unknowing (ajña) milk brings about the nourishment of the calf, so the profusion of pradhana brings about the liberation of purusa.


Just as [in] the world actions are performed for the purpose of removing [i.e. fulfilling] a desire, so does the unmanifest perform for the purpose of the liberation of purusa.


Just as, having displayed herself before the gaze of the audience, the dancer desists from dancing, so prakrti desists, having manifested herself to purusa.


She, being endowed with the gunas, moves without any benefit [to herself] for the sake of puÅs (i.e. purusa), who, being without gunas, does not reciprocate.


In my view there is no one more tender than prakrti, who, saying ‘I have been seen,’ never again comes into purusas sight.


No one, then, is bound, nor released, nor wanders; it is prakrti, in its various abodes (afraya), that wanders, and is bound and released.


Prakrti binds herself by herself with the use of seven forms; and, for the sake of each purusa, liberates herself by means of one form.


Thus, from the assiduous practice of that-ness, the knowledge arises that ‘I am not,’ ‘not mine,’ ‘not I’; which [knowledge], being free of delusion, is complete, pure, and singular.


Then purusa, abiding [in itself] like a spectator, sees prakrti, who has returned to inactivity and retreated from the seven forms due to her purpose being complete.


‘I have seen her,’ says the spectating one; ‘I have been seen,’ says the other, desisting; although the two remain in conjunction, there is no initiation of [further] emergence.


Due to the attainment of perfect knowledge, virtue (dharma) and the rest have no impelling cause; [nevertheless,] the endowed body persists owing to the momentum of impressions, like a potters wheel.


Pradhana being inactive, her purpose having been fulfilled, [purusa], upon separating from the body, attains aloneness (kaivalya), which is both singular and conclusive.


This esoteric knowledge of purusas goal, examining the existence, arising and dissolution of entities, has been expounded by the highest sage.


The quiet monk first passed on this supreme means of purification, compassionately, to Asuri; Asuri, again, to Pañcafikha, and by him the teaching was widely distributed.


Communicated along a lineage of disciples, this has been thoroughly expounded in arya metre by the noble-minded Ifvarakrsjena, attainer of ultimate knowledge.


The topics of the seventy [verses] are indeed those of the entire ‘sixty doctrines’ (sastitantra), though excluding illustrative stories and the consideration of opposing views.

Swastvritta 2

Eight factors of diet/dietetics 

Natural qualities of substance
Actions give to a substance and preparation of it
Time of season and day
Following the rules of use
The user’s own prakriti, vikriti, agni, etc etc etc)
Charaka CS. 1.21


Natural qualities are the innate properties of substances. The presence of qualities like heaviness vs lightness, etc…. if the natural property of substances used as diet or drug. Ex. Heaviness is the nature of black gram and pork and lightness of green gram and venison.


Preparation is the process performed to modify the natural properties of substances. It is that which modifies radically the properties of substances that is transformation. This modification is brought about by application of water or heat, cleaning, churning, storing, maturing, flavoring, impregnation, preservation and the material of receptacle.
Ex. The property of rice is heaviness. This property is lost by washing with water and cooking and the rice acquires the property of lightness. This is why it is washed three times before cooked.
Curd causes swelling/edema but after churning it to takra, it destroys it.


Combination is the combining together of two or more substances. This combination exhibits special properties which none of the constituents ever possessed separately.

Ex. The combination of honey and ghee. Honey and ghee taken alone is wholesome to the body but combined in equal quantities, they become toxic. Similarly the combination of honey, fish and milk has a toxic effect. There are many other mentioned incompatible combinations but the actual knowledge of why they are incompatible is void completely in Western Ayurveda. Most all sanskrit texts are written this way to hide the knowledge as well as to teach it to those that are pure enough to understand it.


Quantum is of two varieties
One which is the total measurement of the entire meal as a whole i.e. the combined quantity of the rice, meat, pulse, condiments etc.
One is the detailed measurement of each article of diet separately. It determines the effects of the right and wrong doses.


Habitat is a geographic region. It indicates variations in the qualities of substances, due to difference in soil, use and climate. Substance grown in the region of Himalayas are heavy in property while those grown in desert or sandy region are light. The living beings who consume light articles of food or live in desert or sandy regions or indulge in many activities are also light in nature. Compatibility to habitat is that having opposite qualities to those of the region. Ex. Substances having the qualities of hot, dry etc. are homologous to the watery or marshy region, and the substances having the qualities of cold, unctuous etc. are compatible to the habitat for the desert or sandy regions.

Time is used in two senses, time in the general sense and time in the sense of a stage.
Time in the general sense is used in relation to seasonal wholesomeness.
The stage is used in relation to a disease.


The procedure in diet consists of the dietetic rules. They are determined by the strength of agni/digestion.


The user is he who makes use of food.


These eight different factors give rise to good and evil effects. One should try to know them and their details and derivation. Having known them one should make use of them with wisdom. One should not make use of any article of diet or any other thing which is pleasant but unwholesome because it is fraught with unhappy consequences in time.


Rules for taking food

Hot – the meals must be eaten cooked and served warm. There is no such thing as raw ayurveda, no one with any real knowledge of ayurveda would come up with such a thing and just throwing pungent herbs like cayenne onto raw food (yes this is the thought) is going to create disease in the eyes of Ayurveda. It is also being said that pitta prakrti is allowed to eat raw food. This too is a fabrication by improperly educated and this is not Ayurveda.
Unctuous – the food should be moist and with oil
In due measure – within proper amount
After full digestion of the previous meal – see above if not clear
Non-antagonistic in potency – Opposite virya is a indigestible combo
In the congenial place – This speaks to eating out at almost every restaurant
Provided with all the favourite accessories – Chutneys, accoutrements, proper utensils, etc
Neither eaten hurriedly nor eaten leisurely – too fast and too slow both imbalance the digestion
Without talking or laughing – do not speak while eating
With full concentration – just focus on your food, chewing what it tastes like/feels like and swallowing. Its gonna turn into you. If you actually love yourself, this would be the first indicator of that.
Having proper regard to oneself – obvious


Staples, the foods that are to be eaten all the time

Shashtika (Variety of rice grown in sixty days)
Meat of animals of desert like lands
Changeri (Marssilea minuta or clover)
Jivanti (Leptadenia reticilata)
Young daikon radish
Patoli (Trichosanthus dioica Roxb.)
Mung beans
Rain water or purified water
Rock salt


Foods that are to be used sparingly

Mixture of buttermilk and milk
Solid portion of yogurt
Fermented preparations
Raw radish
Meat of emaciated animals, (Dry meat, Meat of boar, sheep, cow, fish and buffalo)
Black gram (Phaseolus mungo)
Flat bean (Dolichos lablab)
Lotus root
Lotus bulb/Fibre
Germinated grains
Dried vegetables
Small type of barley


This is but a start to understanding food. There is even a whole science just of cooking, preparation, and serving of food.

Swastaviritta 1

Swasthavritta, is the Ayurvedic preventive and social medicine in view of modern medical science. It’s primary aim is to preserve the health of healthy individual. It laid down all the preventive principles which are necessary in maintenance of health. The concept of Swasthavritta is a pioneer in the field of medicine propagated by ancient seers and is a basic need for building a healthy society.

It is based in the three pillars of health;  food, sleep, and abstinence. These three can be compared with health behaviour of modern day and are major contributors of both mortality and morbidity of a number of disease and health issues and their consequences globally.

Food and lifestyle routines are considered the most important medicine in Ayurveda. Every individual is unique and there is no diet or lifestyle routine that works for everyone. Ayurveda has the container to hold this with the detailed depth of knowledge to diagnosis each individual as to their own needs.

Ayurveda stresses FOOD, SLEEP & ABSTINENCE to be used with intelligence in a planned manner. This facilitates a person with all benefits of life endowed with strength, complexion, and full life span provided one does not indulge in unbeneficial activity and maintains rules prescribed for that. This ‘usage with intelligence’ also is interesting due to the fact that in following one’s intelligence to to go about their life using what is known to be beneficial and disregarding what is not beneficial it takes awareness of many variables. In understanding these variables, it makes one aware of and draws one to live in accordance to their surroundings and environment as well as their own system to a hugely greater degree. In this living, the rules of Ayurveda cannot maintain a superficial chore list of ‘eat this don’t eat that’ and do this and do that’ but one experiences the knowledge first-handedly. Following a to do and not to do list will never be anything other than empty information that ends in failure. For instance just the knowledge alone of one substance like and apple, it can be sweet or can be sour. Each will have its own effect on the system. This is applied into everything; how one lives and what one does, not only the understanding of food or how to eat.


In the next several posts, I will talk about each of the pillars. The first is Food. I find it the most challenging for people to understand as there are so many variables that go into it and the details continue to get deeper and deeper as one learns. It is not something that is learned thru a simplified book or by following a dosha diet propounded by Western new age Ayurveda books that saturate the market. So where does one start? We start with the basics.



From back in the Vedic era, Taittiriya Upanishad states that food is known as Brahma as it is the supreme and the creator as all the living beings originate from food and will this body with then be food to other organisms after this life is over. It is present in form of food sheath, annamaya kosha, in all living beings.

In Kashyapa Samhita, Kashyapa has called food Mahabheshajya, the biggest medicine. There is no medicinal equivalent to food. It is possible to make a person disease free with proper diet. It is also the main causations of disease. You can imagine that if the ancestors knew this, what we still do not get today, that it probably goes into much much greater detail as well. It does.

The Bhagavad Gita says that satvik food makes the mind clear and when mind is devoid of blemishes memory power enhances.


Ayurveda defines the types of food as

Corns with bristles – Sali (rice), Sashtika (60 days harvest rice), Yava (barley), Godhuma (wheat) etc.
Pulses – Mudga (mung dahl), Masha (black dahl), Adhaki (pigeon pea), Tila (sesame), etc.
Vegetables – consisting of leaves, tubers etc.
Raw food edibles that are eaten like salad
Milk and milk products
Sugar cane products like jaggery, sugar etc.
Food preparations – peya (gruel), vilepi (thick gruel), manda, saktu etc.
Accessory food articles – oils, condiments, spices, salts etc.


When and how to eat

Two Aahara kalas
Morning and evening is only recommended for the principal meals. Food in between (snacks) is not recommended at all. The reason why is that the food must be taken only after proper digestion of previous food which can be known from the signs of proper digestion like; clear belching, enthusiasm, proper evacuation of bowels, lightness of body/emptiness of stomach, hunger and thirst.

The food should not be taken within 3 hours in general after the previous meals. During this period rasa dhatu if it is disturbed by the consumption of another meal, its development is hindered and aama (improperly digested food nutrient toxicity) occurs. Rasa dhatu is what is formed when agni (digestive fire) digests food. When food is completely digested with the help of normally secreted digestive juices, the nutritive part of the digested food is called as rasa. This nutritive juice nourishes all cells and tissues of body. It is somewhat analogous to extracellular and intracellular fluids.

Rasajam purusham vidyaat rasam rakshet prayatnatah
annath paanathcha mathimaan aahaaraatch apyathandritah”

Rasa dhatu contains all the nutrients required to nourish body. Hence Ayurveda mentions human body as product of rasa. As rasa dhatu nourishes body and helps to keep it healthy, we should always put efforts to protect rasa dhatu. Indigestion impairs quality of rasadhatu.


Also one should not fast for more than 6 hours because it causes depletion of the strength of the system. Food then should be taken after 3 hours of the previous meal and before the completion of 6 hours in general.
Again, the previous meal should be completely digested before another meal is taken. Taking the evening meal even though the morning meal has not been completely digested is not injurious because the srotamsi (micro channels) are open due to the exertion, movement, and mental activity (stimulation of prana) of daytime as well as the sun being up. Due to this, the dhatus (tissues) of these channels do not get softened by excessive moisture (kleda) in the day. In the night, when the heart is in a state of diminished action, the channels, including the koshtha (digestive system), are inactive and dhatus are soften with kleda. Thus when the food consumed in the night is not fully digested, the person of intellect desiring to protect his strength and life, should not have any food.


The exception to the rule…… hunger

Hunger falls in the group of Adhaarniya vega (natural impulses or urges that not to be suppressed) so no rule is required to be followed. If one suppresses hunger then the digestive fire in absence of food, starts digesting doshas, then the dhatus and then ultimately digests prana and takes away life. This in fact is the deeper knowledge of fasting. Fasting done correctly digests the doshas and creates health. Fasting incorrectly destroys health. We can see this trying to be used in the Western world’s newest diet fad, ‘intermittent fasting.’ Problem is that our view of health is skewed. If you just search intermittent fasting on the net and see what pictures you come up with, everyone is getting ripped and that is the goal. There is a normal level of fat on your body that maintains health of the system and regulates many other things that the Western world has yet to discover yet is known in Ayurveda. Being ‘ripped’ is not healthy and creates disease later on in life. One more addition to think about is that your brain is made of fat. If your whole system is ripped, what do you believe is happening to your brain.


What is the effect of eating food untimely?

Vishamam bahu vaalpam vapya praptaateet kaalayoh
Bhuktam purvannasheshe tu puaradhyashanam
Intake of less or more at irregular timings and intake of food before digestion of previous food leads to death or dreadful diseases

Charaka CS 15.235

From Majja Comes Shukra Dhatu

Rasad raktam tato mamsam mamsanmedah prajayate, medasosthi tatomajja, majja shukrasya sambhavah—From food comes juice or chyle; from chyle, blood; from blood, flesh; from flesh, fat; from fat, bones; from bones, marrow; and lastly from marrow, semen.
The Veerya comes out of the very marrow that lies concealed inside the bones. It is found in a subtle state in all the cells of the body. Out of food is manufactured chyle. Out of chyle comes blood. Out of blood comes flesh. Out of flesh comes fat. Out of fat comes bone. Out of bone comes marrow (Majja). Out of marrow comes semen. These are the Sapta Dhatus that support this life and body. Mark here how precious semen is! It is the last essence. It is the Essence of essences.
Semen is the quintessence of food or blood. One drop of semen is manufactured out of 40 drops of blood according to modern medical science. According to Ayurveda, it is elaborated out of 80 drops of blood. Just as sugar is all-pervading in the sugar cane, butter in milk, so also, semen is pervading the whole body. Just as butter-milk is thin after the butter is removed, so also, semen is thinned by its wastage. The more the wastage of semen, the more is the weakness.
In Yoga Shastras it is said, “Maranam bindu-patanat jeevanam bindurakshanat”—falling of semen brings death; preservation of semen gives life. semen is the real vitality in man. It is the hidden treasure for man. It imparts Brahma Tejas to face and strength to the intellect.
The two testes or seeds that are located in the scrotal bag are called secretory glands. These cells of the testes have been endowed with the peculiar property of secreting semen from the blood. Just as bees collect honey in the honeycomb drop by drop, so also, the cells of the testes collect the semen drop by drop from the blood. Then this fluid is taken by the two ducts or tubes to the vesiculae seminalis. Under excitement, it is thrown out by special ducts, called ejaculatory ducts, into the urethra where it is mixed with the prostatic juice.
According to Ayurveda, semen is the last Dhatu that is formed out of Majja or marrow. From food, chyle (Rasa) is manufactured. Out of chyle comes blood (Rakta); out of blood comes flesh; out of flesh comes fat, out of fat comes marrow; out of marrow comes semen. These are the seven Dhatus. There are three divisions in each Dhatu. Semen nourishes the physical body, heart and intellect. That man who uses the physical body, heart and intellect.
A tree draws the essence (Rasa) from the earth. It is circulated throughout the tree, its twigs, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. The shining colour and life in the leaves, flowers, etc., is due to this Rasa. Similarly, the Veerya that is manufactured by the cells of the testes out of the blood gives colour and vitality to this body and different organs.
One of the students of Dhanvantari approached his teacher after finishing his full course of Ayurveda and asked him: “O Bhagavan! Kindly let me know the secret of health now.” Dhanvantari replied: “This Veerya (seminal energy) is verily Atman. The secret of health lies in the preservation of this vital force. He who wastes this energy cannot have physical, mental, moral and spiritual development.”
If the spermatic secretion in men is continuous, it must either be expelled or reabsorbed.


And then the Western science has once again proven what Ayurveda has already known for 5000+ years….

Early-stage sperm cells created from human bone marrow

Human bone marrow has been used to create early-stage sperm cells for the first time, a scientific step forward that will help researchers understand more about how sperm cells are created.

The research published (Friday, April 13 2007), in the academic journal Reproduction: Gamete Biology, was led by Professor Karim Nayernia (pictured), formerly of the University of Göttingen in Germany but now of Newcastle University and the North-east England Stem Cell Institute (NESCI).

For the experiment, Prof Nayernia and his team took bone marrow from male volunteers and isolated the mesenchymal stem cells. These cells have previously been found to grow into other body tissues such as muscle.

They cultured these cells in the laboratory and coaxed them into becoming male reproductive cells, which are scientifically known as ‘germ cells’.

Genetic markers showed the presence of partly-developed sperm cells called spermatagonial stem cells, which are an early phase of the male germ cell development. In most men, spermatagonial cells eventually develop into mature, functional sperm but this progression was not achieved in this experiment.

The research was carried out in Germany. Prof Nayernia is continuing with this work at NESCI, which has just opened a suite of new laboratories at the Cente for Life in Newcastle.

Earlier research led by Prof Nayernia using mice, published in Laboratory Investigations, also created spermatagonial cells from mouse bone marrow. The cells were transplanted into mouse testes and were observed to undergo early meiosis – cell division – the next stage to them becoming mature sperm cells, although they did not develop further.

Talking about his newly published research paper, Prof Nayernia said : “We’re very excited about this discovery, particularly as our earlier work in mice suggests that we could develop this work even further.

“Our next goal is to see if we can get the spermatagonial stem cells to progress to mature sperm in the laboratory and this should take around three to five years of experiments. I’ll be collaborating with other NESCI scientists to take this work forward.

Prof Nayernia says a lengthy process of scientific investigation is required within a reasonable ethical and social framework to be able to take this work to its next stage or to say if it has potential applications in terms of fertility treatments in humans.

Prof Nayernia gained worldwide acclaim in July 2006 when he announced in the journal Developmental Cell that he and colleagues had created sperm cells from mouse embryonic stem cells and used these to fertilise mice eggs, resulting in seven live births.


Research paper reference: N. Drusenheimer, Wulf, G., Nolte, J., Lee, J.H., Dev, A., Dressel, R., Gromoll, J., Schmidtke, J., Engel, W. and Nayneria, K. (2007) Putative human male germ cells from bone marrow stem cells. In: Gamete Biology: Emerging Frontiers on Fertility and Contraceptive Development (SRF 63) (S.K. Gupta, K. Koyama and J.F. Murray Eds). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, England. pp. 69-76.

The Non-entity of the Mind

The means of repressing the force of the senses, and of curbing the sensual desires of men.

The vast domain of death, in the region of hell, is full of the furious elephants of our sins; and the ungovernable enemies of the senses with the arrows of desires. (I.e. hell is the abode of sinners, sensualists and the greedy).

2. Our senses are our invincible enemies, being the sources of all misdeeds and wicked actions. They are the ungrateful miscreants against the body, in which they have found their refuge.

3. The roving senses like flying birds, have found their nest in the body; whence with their outstretched wings of right and wrong, they pounce on their prey like vultures.

4. He who can entrap these greedy birds of the senses, under the snare of his right reason, is never ensnared in his person in the trap of sin, but breaks its bonds as the elephant does his fetters.

5. He who indulges himself in sensual pleasures which are pleasant at first, will have to be cloyed in them in process of time. (Pleasure is followed by pain. Or: Rills of pleasure not sincere.)

6. He who is fraught with the treasure of knowledge in his frail body, is not to be overcome by his inward enemies of sensual appetites.

7. The kings of earth are not so happy in their earthly citadels, as the lords of the cities of the own bodies, and the masters of their own minds. (Mastery over one’s self, is better than over a realm).

8. He who has brought the senses under his slavery, and reduced the enemy of his mind to subjection; has the blossoms of his understanding ever blooming within him as in the vernal meadow.

9. He who has weakened the pride of his mind, and subdued the enemies of his senses; has his desires all shrunken as the lotuses in the cold weather.

10. So long do the demons of our desires, infest the region of our hearts, as we are unable to bring the mind under the subjection of our knowledge of the True one.

11. He is the faithful servant, who acts according to the will of his master, and he is the true minister who does good services to his prince. He is the best general who has command over the force of his own body, and that is the best understanding which is guided by reason.

12. The wife is loved for her endearments, and the father is revered for his protection of the child. A friend is valued by his confidence, and the mind for its wisdom.

13. The mind is called our father, for its enlightening our understanding with the light of the sāstras derived by itself, and for its leading us to perfection by losing itself in the Supreme spirit. (The mind like the father, is the instructor and bequeather of its all to man, ere it is extinct in the universal soul).

14. The mind that has well observed and considered all things, that is enlightened and firm in its belief, and is employed in laudable pursuits, is verily a valuable gem within the body.

15. The mind as a counsellor of our good, teaches us how to fell down the tree of our transmigration, and produce the arbour of our future bliss.

16. Such is the gem of the mind, unless it is soiled by the dirt and filth of sin and vice; when it requires to be washed and cleansed with the water of reason, in order to throw its light on thee.

17. Be not dormant to cultivate reason as long as you abide in the darksome abode of this world; nor thrust yourself to every accident, which awaits upon the ignorant and unreasonable men.

18. Do not overlook the mist of error which overspreads this world of illusion, abounding with multitudes of mishaps and mischiefs. (Harm watch, harm catch. Hold arms, against harms).

19. Try to cross over the wide ocean of the world, by riding on the strong barque of your reason, espying the right course by your discretion, against the currents of your sensual desires.

20. Know your body to be a frail flower, and all its pleasure and pain to be unreal; so never take them for realities, as in the instance of the snare, snake and the matting; but remain above sorrowing for any thing as in the instance of Bhīma and Bhāsa (which will be shortly related to you).

21. Give up, your misjudgments of the reality of yourself, and of this and that thing; but direct your understanding to the knowledge of the Reality which is beyond all these; and by forsaking your belief and reliance in the mind, continue in your course of eating and drinking as before.

From the Bhagavad Gita

यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया ।यत्र चैवात्मनात्मानं पश्यन्नात्मनि तुष्यति ॥

yatro’paramate cittam niruddham yogasevayā,

yatra cai’vā’tmanā’tmānam paśyann ātmani tuṣyati

“In the state in which even the yoga restrained mind is dissolved by a direct perception of God, the worshiper rests contented in his Self.’’

This state is achieved only by a “constant” and long practice of yoga.

In the absence of such, there can be no restraint of the mind.

Birth, Death and Existence

The Liberation of the Rājasa-sātvika natures, and description of knowledge and Indifference.

Those that are born with the nature of Rājasa-sātvika, remain highly pleased in the world, and are as gladsome in their faces, as the face of the sky with the serene light of the moon-beams.

2. Their faces are not darkened by melancholy, but are as bright as the face of heaven; they are never exposed to troubles, like the lotus flowers to the frost of night.

3. They never deviate from their even nature, but remain unmoved as the immovable bodies; and they persist in their course of beneficence, as the trees yield their fruits to all.

4. The rāja and sātva natured man gets his liberation in the same manner as the disk of the moon receives its ambrosial beams.

5. He never forsakes his mildness, even when he is in trouble; but remains as cool as the moon even in her eclipse. He shines with the lovely virtue of fellow-feeling to all.

6. Blessed are the righteous who are always even tempered, gentle and as handsome as the forest trees beset by creepers with clusters of their blossoms.

7. They keep in their bounds, as the sea remains within its boundaries, and are meek like yourself in their even tempers. Hence they never desire nor wish for any thing in the world.

8. You must always walk in the way of the godly, and not run to the sea of dangers; thus you should go on without pain or sorrow in your life.

9. Your soul will be as elevated as the rājasa and sātvika states, by your avoiding the ways of the ungodly, and considering well the teachings of the sāstras.

10. Consider well in your mind the frail acts, which are attended with various evils; and do those acts which are good for the three worlds, both in their beginning and end, and forever to eternity.

11. The intelligent think that as dangerous to them, and not otherwise; by reason of their being freed from narrow views, and the false spectres—the offspring of ignorance.

12. You should always consider in yourself for the enlightenment of your understanding, and say: O Lord! what am I, and whence is this multiplicity of worlds?

13. By diligently considering these subjects in the society of the wise and righteous, you must neither be engaged in your ceremonial acts, nor continue in your unnecessary practices of the rituals.

14. You must look at the disjunction of all things in the world from you (i.e. the temporaneousness of worldly things); and seek to associate with the righteous, as the peacock yearns for the rainy clouds.

15. Our inward egoism, outward body and the external world, are the three seas encompassing us one after the other. It is right reasoning only which affords the raft to cross over them, and bring us under the light of truth.

16. By refraining to think of the beauty and firmness of your exterior form, you will come to perceive the internal light of your intellect hid under your egoism; as the thin and connecting thread is concealed under a string of pearls. (The hidden thread underlying the links of souls, is termed Sūtrātmā.)

17. It is that eternally existent and infinitely extended blessed thread, which connects and stretches through all beings; and as the gems are strung to a string, so are all things linked together by the latent spirit of God.

18. The vacuous space of the Divine Intellect, contains the whole universe, as the vacuity of the air, contains the glorious sun; and as the hollow of the earth, contains an emmet.

19. As it is the same air which fills the cavity of every pot on earth, so it is the one and the same intellect and spirit of God, which fills, enlivens and sustains all bodies in every place. (The text says, “The Intellect knows no difference of bodies, but pervades alike in all”).

20. As the ideas of sweet and sour are the same in all men, so is the consciousness of the Intellect alike in all mankind (i.e. we are all equally conscious of our intellectuality, as we are of the sweetness and sourness of things).

21. There being but one and only one real substance in existence, it is a palpable error of your ignorant folks to say, “this one exists, and the other perishes or vanishes away”. (Nothing is born or extinct, but all exist in God).

22. There is no such thing which being once produced, is resolved into naught at at any time; all these are no realities nor unrealities, but representations or reflexions of the Real One.

23. Whatever is visible and of temporary existence, is without any perceptible substantiality of its own; it is only an object of our fallacy, beyond which it has no existence. (Hence they are no more than unrealities).

24. Why should any body suffer himself to be deluded by these unrealities? All these accompaniments here, being no better than causes of our delusion.

25. The accompaniment of unrealities, tends only to our delusion here; and if they are taken for realities, to what good do they tend than to delude us the more. (It is better to let the unreal pass as unreal, than to take them for real, and be utterly deceived at last).

How the material environment in which the soul is said to inhabit is evolved, and how the inclusion of the spiritual within the material organism is affected.

The latent (lit: unmanifest) supreme nature (Prakriti) is the progenitor of all created things. She is self- begotten and connotes the three fundamental or primary virtues of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.

She is imaged or embodied in the eightfold categories of

  • Avyakta (unmanifest),
  • Mahan (intellection),
  • Ahamkara (Egoism)
  • and the Five Tanmatras or elementals (proper sensibles of hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell)

and is the sole and primary factor in working out the evolution of the universe. The one absolute and original nature is the fundamental stone house of materials out of which the bodies of all self-conscious (Karma-Purusha) working agents (agents who come into being through the dynamical energy of their acts or Karmas) have been evolved in the same manner as all water, whether confined in a tank or a reservoir, or coursing free through the channels of streams and of mighty rivers, have been welled up from the one and shoreless primordial ocean. 2.

Out of that latent unmanifest (Avyakta) or original nature (impregnated by the atoms or elemental units of consciousness or Purushas) Intellection or Mahan has been evolved, and out of Mahan egoism. This Mahan or intellection should be likewise considered as partaking of the three fundamental attributes (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas) of the latent (Avyakta) or original nature. Ahamkara or egoism in its turn may be grouped under three subheads as the Vaikarika Taijasa (operative) or Rajasika, and Bhutadi (illusive or Tamasika). 3.

The eleven organs of cognition, communication or sense perception have emanated from the co-operation of the aforesaid Vaikarika Ahamkara with the Taijasa or Rajasa.

They are

  1. the ears,
  2. skin,
  3. eyes,
  4. tongue,
  5. nose,
  6. speech,
  7. hands,
  8. genitals,
  9. anus,
  10. feet
  11. and the mind (Manah).

Of these foregoing organs the first five are intellectual or sense organs (Vuddhi-Indriya); the next five being operative (Karma-Indriya). The mind (Manah) partakes of the character of both the intellectual and operative organs alike. 4-5.

The five Tanmatras or elementals (or the five proper sensibles of hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell) characterised by the Nescience, etc. have been evolved out of the Bhutadi etc. (or Tamasa Ahamkara) concerted with the Taijasa Ahamkara through the instrumentality of the Vaikarika. The gross or perceptible modifications of these five Tanmatras are sound, touch, taste, sight and smell.

From the combination of the aforesaid five Tanmatras (Bhutadi) taken one at a time, have successively emanated the five gross matters of space such as

  1. ether,
  2. air,
  3. heat, (fire,)
  4. fluid (water),
  5. and earth (solid).

These twenty four categories combinedly form what is technically known as the twenty four elements (Tattvas). Thus we have discoursed on the twenty four fundamental principles (Chaturvinshati-tattvam). 6.

Hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell respectively form the subjects of the five intellectual (Buddhi) organs of man, whereas the faculty of speech, handling, pleasure, ejections or evacuation, locomotion successively belong to the (remaining) five operative (Karma-Indriya) ones. The original nature (Avyakta), Mahan (intellection), Egoism (Ahamkara), the five sensibles (Tanmatras), and the five gross material principles in their nascent stage in evolution form what is included within the eight categories of Nature (Prakriti), the remaining sixteen categories being her modifications (Vikara). The objects of intellection (Mahan) and Egoism (Ahamkara) as well as of the sense organs of knowledge and actions are the material principles (Adibhautika) though they are spiritual in themselves and in their nature.

The tutelary god of intellection (Buddhi) is Brahma.
The god Ishvara is the presiding deity of the sense of egoism (Ahamkara);
the moon god is that of the mind (Manah);
the quarters of the heaven, of the ears;
the wind god is that of the skin;
the sun is that of the eyes;
the water is that of the taste;
the earth is that of the smell;
the fire is that of the speech;
Indra is that of the hands;
Vishnu is that of the legs;
Mitra is that of the anus
and Prajapati is that of the organs of generations. 7.

All the aforesaid (twenty-four) categories or elementals (Chaturvinshati-Tanmatras) are devoid of consciousness. Similarly the modifications of the primal cause of Prakriti such as the Mahat etc. are all bereft of consciousness in as much as the cause itself, the Avyakta or the original nature is devoid of it. The Purusha or the self-conscious subjectivity, enters into the primal cause (Mula-Prakriti or original Nature) and its necessary effect (the evolved out phenomena) and makes them endued with his own essence or self-consciousness. The preceptors and holy sages explain the proposition by an analogy that as the milk in the breast of a mother, though unconscious in itself, originates and flows out for the growth and sustenance of her child; (as the semen in the organism of an adult male though devoid of consciousness, flows out during an act of sexual intercourse); so these twenty-four primary material principles (elementals), though unconscious in themselves, tend to contribute towards the making of the self-conscious self or the universal individual (the aggregate of limited or conditional selves) for the purpose of working out his final liberation or emancipation i.e., attainment of the stage of pure consciousness or perfect knowledge. 8.

Now we shall describe the tracts which the Purusha (subjective or self-conscious reality) and Prakriti or nature (passive non-conscious eternity) pass in common as well as those wherein they differ from each other. 9.

Traits of commonalty:—

Both the Purusha and Prakriti are eternal realities, both of them are unmanifest, disembodied, without a beginning or origin, eternal, without a second, all—pervading and omnipresent.

Traits of diversity:—

Of the Purusha and the Prakriti, only the latter is non-conscious and possesses the three fundamental qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Prakriti performs the function of the seed or in other words she lies inherent as the seed or the primary cause in the latter phenomenal evolution of the Mahat etc. and contributes the maternal element in the conception, development and birth of the primordial cosmic matter (phenomenal universe), fecundated by the Purusha (self-conscious subjectivity) in its different stages of evolution. These stages are called Mahat, Ahamkara etc.; and Prakriti is not indifferent, as the Purusha is to the pleasures and misery of life. But the Purusha (units or atoms of consciousness), devoid of the threefold virtues of Sattva etc. are non concerning hence non-producing and bereft of the seed- attributes of lying inherent in all as the primary cause of evolution. They are mere witnesses to the joys and miseries of life, and do not participate in their enjoyment though imprisoned in the human organism. 10

Since an effect is uniform in virtue to its producing cause, the evolutionised effects or products of the Prakriti such as the Mahat, Ahamkara etc. must needs partake of the three fundamental qualities (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) which are predicated of the Prakriti. In other words, these Mahat, Ahamkara, etc, are but the modifications of the three fundamental qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Moreover, certain authorities hold that the Purushas are units of self-consciousness, possessed of the three aforesaid qualities owing to their antecedent conditions or causes (the gross material universe) being permeated with and characterised by them. 11.

Metrical Text (Vaidyake):—

It is asserted in the Ayurveda that it is only the gross-sighted ones and men capable of observing only the superficial appearances, who confound eternal order or sequence of things and events (Shvabhaba), God (Ishvara) Time (Kala), sudden and unlooked for appearances of the phenomena (Yadriccha), Necessity (Niyati) and transformation (Parinama) with the original Nature (Prakriti). The five different forms of matter (such as Ether etc) are nothing but the modifications or transformed states of the original nature and are characterised by the three universal qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, and all created things, whether mobile or immobile, should be considered as alike exponentiated by the same. In the Science of medicine the cause of a disease is the one sole aim to be achieved by means of administering proper medicinal remedies (matter), and hence the properties of matter are the only fit subject to be dealt with in a book on pharmacy. And further, because the immediately prior cause of the human organism is a proper and congenial admixture of the sperm and ovum (matter), the sense organs are the resultants of phenomenal—evolution of matter, and the objects of sense perception are equally material or phenomenal in their nature. 12–14,

Memorable verse:—

A man by a particular organ of his body perceives the same matter which forms the proper object of that sense organ in as much as the perceiving sense organ and the perceived sensible are produced by the same material cause. The matter, which specifically forms the object of a particular sense organ, cannot be perceived by the other. We see a flower with the eyes and not with the nose. 15.

The Science of medicine does not lay down that the self-conscious Selves (Kshetrajna) are all pervading, but on the contrary it asserts that they are real and eternal and are born in the planes of divine, human or animal existence according to their good or evil deeds in life. The existence of these self-conscious entities can be ascertained duly by inference inasmuch as they are extremely subtle in their essence. The self-conscious self is possessed of infinite consciousness, is real and eternally subject to the process of being evolved out into a finite, organic individual through the dynamics of the combined sperm and ovum. The view is further corroborated by a dictum of the Sruti which holds that Purusha (individual) is nothing but a combination of a self-conscious self and the five kinds of matter (Maha- bhutas) formed into an organic body. This Purusha or individual, which is called Individual of action (Karma- Purusha), falls within the scope of the science and art of medicine. 16–17.

The attributes of an organic individual:—

Longing for pleasure, shunning of pain, enmity, energetic undertaking of work, respiration (Prana), emission of flatus (Apana), closing and opening of the eyelids, intellect (Buddhi), sentiment (Manah), deliberation, discretion, memory, knowledge of art, perseverance, sensation and perception, are the attributes of an organic individual. 18.

Distinctive features of the different classes of mental temperaments:—

An absence of all killing or hostile propensities, a judicious regimen of diet, forbearance, truthfulness, piety, a belief in God, spiritual knowledge, intellect, a good retentive memory, comprehension, and the doing of good deeds irrespective of consequences, are the qualities which grace the mind of a person of a Sattvika temperament. Feeling of much pain and misery, a roving spirit, noncomprehension, vanity, untruthfulness, nonclemency, pride, an over winning confidence in ones own excellence, lust, anger and hilarity are the attributes which mark a mind of the Rajashika cast. Despondency, stupidity, disbelief in the existence of God, impiety, stupification and perversity of intellect, lethargy in action and sleepiness are the qualities which mark a mind of a Tamashika stamp. 19,

The distinctive traits of the five material of Elements of the world:—

  1. The properties of akasha (ether) are sound, the sense of hearing, porosity and differentia evolution of the veins, ligaments etc. into their characterised species (Viviktata.)
  2. The properties Vayu (air) are touch, the skin, all functional activities of the organism, throbbing of the whole body (Spandana) and lightness.
  3. The properties of Teji (fire or heat) are form, the eyes, colours, heat, illumination, digestion, anger, generation of instantaneous energy and valour.
  4. The properties of Apa (water or liquid) are taste, the tongue, fluidity, heaviness, coldness, olioginousness and semen.
  5. The properties or modifications of Prithivi (the earth matter or solid) are smell, the nose, embodiment and heaviness. 20.

Of these the ether or Akasa abounds in attributes of the Sattvika stamp, the Vayu or etherin in Rajashika, the Teja in Sattvika and Rajashika, the water in Sattvika and Tamashika and the earth in Tamasha attributes. 21.



Coriander seeds – 6.5 tbsp
Red chilli – 6.5 tbsp
Split chana dahl – 2 tbsp
Fenugreek seed – 3 tsp
Urad dal (black gram) – 2 tbsp
Sesame seed – 1/2 tsp
Black pepper corn – 40
Asafoetida – 1 tsp
Heat a small pan and add a tsp of ghee. Add the asafoetida and reduce flame. Keep aside to cool. After it cools, clean the pan with a spatula to remove all residue and oil. Fry each ingredient separately like this, cool and powder/grind together.You can add curry leaves when frying the channa dahl. Then sieve and store in an airtight container.
This is sambar powder
Basic Sambar
Vegetables – 3 cups
(Ash gourd, eggplant, drumstick, okra, and carrots and radish are staples. Sambar with just one of the vegetables can be made.)
Tamarind – 3 cups of pulp extracted
Turmeric powder – 1 tsp
Toor dal – 1/2 cup pressure cooked to get about 1 cup of thick cooked dahl
Sambar powder – 2 tbsp
Oil – 1 tbsp
Mustard seeds – 1/2 tsp
Red chilli – 1 broken
Curry leaf – 5
Cook the vegetables in the tamarind water with the salt and turmeric powder.
Once cooked add the sambar powder and continue cooking for a further 2 minutes.
Last add some water and boil
Garnish with tarka of mustard, red chillies and curry leaf.
U can tweek the recipe by adding jaggery to cool it down spicey heat wise as well.

Understanding of the seasons

Ṛtusaṃhāra is a poem written by Kalidasa. It is a nice example of how knowledge is held and passed on in ancient India.

Read and see how much you can pick out from each verse which is telling of the seasons and what to do to balance them in Rtucharya. I think Kalidasa gets carried away alittle and loses anything about the seasons in his passionate mind about halfway thru but there are still deep understandings of the seasons within.


The beautiful thing about this linked translation is the explanation in the second half which will give you a greater understanding not only of the prose but of the seasons observances. The following is just a taste… it is all written after the poem.

CANTO I Stanza 1, Line 7 ; CUPID—Churner of the Mind
The Churner of the mind, Manmatha, also known as Manasija, “ the mind-born is weary after the temptations and opportunities for love during the preceding Spring. How the God of Love came to reside in the mind is in the Introductory Note.

Stanza 2, Line 6 : SANDAL (Sk. Chandana)
The English word is derived from the Arabic pronunciation of the original Sanskrit name of the Santalum Album tree with its strongly scented yellowish brown heartwood. It is a small evergreen tree found mostly in parts of Bombay Presidency and in Mysore State. It is also grown in Coimbatore and parts of Madras Presidency adjoining Mysore State. The wood is hard, very close-grained and oily, the branches slender, and drooping with the leaves opposite. The flowering time is from February to July and the flowers are brownish-purple in colour. The plant is easily propagated from seed and is a root parasite, the roots sucking nourishment from the roots of the neighbouring plants by penetrating them. Sandal oil is valuable for its remarkable fragrance and is well-known for its healing virtues. The tree is felled at the age of thirty for the extraction of the essential oil and for sandal wood. Sandal paste is still commonly used in India especially in the summer/autumn as it has a cooling effect. It is also a votive offering in individual and public worship and Hindu women offer it together with flowers, kumkum and perfume to guests at marriages and other festivities.

Stanza 4, Line 3: LINEN (Sk. Dukula)
Dukula also means silk woven very fine. It is interesting to note that only linen and silk are referred to in this poem but not cotton fabrics for women’s wear. There are two reasons for this. Kalidasa is describing the activities of men and women of the wealthier classes who enjoy luxuries such as “ dwelling places with fountains,” “ ornaments of gold and pearls,” etc. who would not be in the habit of using ordinary cotton clothing. Apart from this, according to the Alamkara Sastra, while silk (Dukulam or Kshoumam) is believed to be auspicious (Mangalprada) and is always associated with all occasions of happiness and rejoicing. Similar use of the word may be found in Kalidasa’s Sakuntala (Act IV) and other Sanskrit poems.

There is much more of this explanation in the text after the poem. 


And here is the poem……



The furious sun is ablaze.
One longs for the moon.
The pools of limpid waters
Invite a dip evermore.
The twilight hours are charming
When the day dies down.
And Cupid, churner of the mind, is weary.
This, my love, is the advent of full Summer.

The moon has chased and dispersed
The serried ranks of darkness;
Such nights, my love.
And somewhere a dwelling place
With a wondrous fountain of water.
And congeries of jewels and the liquid sandal cream,
Divert the people’s minds.
And add to the charm of the moment.

The delightful terraces of the mansions
Fragrant with flowers.
And wine, vivid with the breath and the lips of the beloved.
And song, accompanied by well-strung lute and lyre,
Kindling the light of love,
Are enjoyed by amorous men
During the midnights of Summer.

With rounded hips.
Whose grace is enhanced
By soft white silk and the girdle;
With the bosom ornate with strings of pearls,
Or gems and sandal paste.
And masses of hair
With the lingering subtle perfume
Of bath cosmetics,
Women soothe the senses of their lovers.
During the heat of Summer.

Day with the flame-coloured stain
Of laksha juice,
Maidens’ feet with tinkling anklets
Vying with the sonorous note of the hamsa.
At every step stir the mind of youths.
And turn them to thoughts of love.

Mysterious breasts.
With the fluid paste of sandal
And precious strings of snow-white pearls commingling
And the region of the hips
With the quivering golden girdle;
Whose mind do they not allure
And fill with a wistful yearning!

proud young women in beauty’s bloom,
Overcome by sweat and effusive moisture
Under arm and on perfect limbs,
Discard their cumbersome garments
And cover their high and pointed breasts
With fine linen and thin raiment.

Dormant Cupid, as if he were asleep.
Is awakened with the gentle breeze
Of fans moistened with sandal water.
With soft melodious music tuned
To vallaki lute and kakali pipe,
And the gentle pressure of rounded breasts
Inseparable from ropes of pearls.

The moon, long gazing, at will,
At the faces of lovely women
Sweetly slumbering on whitened terraces At night,
is doubtless over-eager;
Overtaken by dawn He is sadly crestfallen.
And hides his shame in pallor.

The earth oppressed with stifling heat
And enfolded in the circling dust storm
Raised by unbearable winds.
Cannot be seen by the lonely traveller
Whose mind is scorched by the fire of separation ;
His vision being blurred
He cannot tread his weary way.

The antelopes, harassed unceasingly
By the terrific glare of sunshine.
With thirsty palates and parching tongues,
Can scarce espy the firmament
Dark like the powdered collyrium;
They think ’tis a sheet of water
In the midst of an alien wood,
And, bounding, lightly break from the earth.

Romantic maids, like the adorable gloaming
Lit by the shimmering moon,
playfully dally
With lips that hold a ready smile.
And with stolen glances from lowered eyes
They soon ignite the flame of love
In the mind of the wayworn wanderer.

Oppressed incessantly by the sun’s rays,
And scorched by the heated dust on the way,
The cobra, with its hood depressed
And spiral gait in uncurled length.
Pants ever and anon,
And rests on the ground in the peacock’s shade.

A quenchless thirst has put an end
To the brave deeds of the lion, lord of beasts;
Panting audibly with jaws agape,
With lolling tongue and quivering mane.
He ignores the nearby elephant.
Though he loves the furious fray.

And the tuskers, too, lose the sense of dread
Of even the lion,
While from the trunks they throw up sprays
Of moisture cool to ease their flanks
Seared by the blistering rays;
And stricken with the growing thirst
They move in quest of water.

Weary alike in mind and body.
Through the rays of the sun.
Hot like sacred fire fed on the altar.
The peacock lets the nearby serpent live
Which seeking shelter thrusts its neck
Into the discs on its gaudy plumes.

And the herd of wild boar,
Tortured by the broiling sun.
Nuzzle in the drying mud of the ponds
Where the Bhadramusta weeds alone survive;
And digging with their lengthy snouts
Fain would reach the core of the earth.

Scorched by the burning rays of the sun,
The frogs leap out of the water
Of the marsh thick with mud,
And sit beneath the parasol
Of a thirsty serpent’s hood.

In the sylvan pool the tangled mass of lotus stalks
Has been torn asunder,
The fish have perished.
The terrified sarasa have flown away;
For, closely packed together.
And jostling one another.
The elephants, in a herd, have invaded it
And left it a sea of mud.

The iridescence of its crest-jewel
Is heightened by the sunbeams,
While the hooded cobra sucks the air
With its lolling cleft tongue;
Worried by the fiery warmth of the sun
And of its own envenomed fang.
And weary with thirst.
It is no more a menace
To the numerous frogs.

With foaming mouths
And sagging pinkish tongues.
The wild buffaloes emerge
From the caverns in the hills
With vision dazed and muzzles in the air ;
And irritated by thirst
They shuffle in search of water.

In the forest the mighty conflagration
Has consumed the sharp dry strings of the grass blades.
And the seared leaves are blown on high
By violent gusts of wind;
The water in the pools evaporates
With the burning breath of the midsummer sun,
And the scourged precincts of the woodland
Present a fearful scene.

Flocks of panting birds forgather
To perch on leafless trees,
And troops of weary monkeys
Shelter in caves in the hills;
The herd of wild bison wanders,
In anxious search for water,
The sarabhas suck avidly
The dwindling water of the pools.

The tongues of the flames have the fiery tinge
Of the opening petals of the palasha bloom,
The conflagration like glistening sindura is vermilion;
Swiftly it spreads by the force of the whirlwind,
And embracing the tender leafage
Of creeper and brushwood and tree,
Is filled with a wild ecstasy;
And many a glade and green recess
Is soon burnt to cinder and ashes.

The smouldering fire hugging the precincts
Leaps into flames fanned by the breeze.
And spreads to the distant hills and dales;
With a cracking noise it sweeps through
Tall clumps of the withering bamboo.
And, in a trice, gathering strength
Pervades the wilted grass.
Scaring and scathing the denizens of the wood.

The flames grow manifold in power
In the groves of the salmali trees.
Whose hollow trunks afire
Are glowing like burnished gold;
Leaping to the boughs of neighbouring trees.
Reft of ripe and fallen leaves,
The flames invade the heart of the forest.
Urged by the miscreant wind.

The elephants, bisons and lions.
With their bodies singed by the flames,
Cease the mutual feud and fray.
As if they were former friends;
They flee from the burning thickets
Distraught by the raging fire.
And run to a low-lying river-bed
Shelved by the silver sands

May you pass your Summers
Where lotus and lily lift their heads in the pools,
And the flowering patala scents the air.
And plunge, at will, in lucid waters.
And enjoy the argent moonbeams
Shooting lustre into the pearls;
And, at night, on open balcony,
When the air vibrates with song
From a voice that is rich and tender.
May you nestle midst charming women,
In sweet inflowing sleep.



The Rains

The approaching season of Rain, dear love,
Comes like a king in pride of power.
The rain-laden clouds are its rutting war elephants;
The lambent flashes of lightning
Serve for its streaming pennons.
And the reverberating thunder
Is the rattle of its kettle-drums;
It is hailed by a host of lovers
As the royal cavalcade is acclaimed
By crowds of suppliants.

The sky is, on all sides, overcast
With a barrier of massive clouds,
Deep hued like the petals of the nenuphar
Or heaps bf powdered collyrium,
Or liker still to the darksome nipples
Of breasts of pregnant women.

Answering the plaintive call
Of the thirsty chataka seeking alms.
The Watering clouds, Bend low, when slow.
To deluge the earth with generous showers ;
And the lisping patter of the rain
Rings sweet to the ears of men.

Clouds with thunder, like the beat of drums,
And Indra’s colourful bow
Across the heavens, to which the streak
Of lightning serves for a string.
And flowing streams of water.
Like the fall of nimble arrows.
Assail the mind of the lonely traveller.

Green, like fragments of jade,
The grass rises on tiptoe,
Stretching its blades to catch the raindrops;
And a mass of the blithe new foliage
Bursts from the kandali plants.
And indragopaka insects make a crimson riot;
With patches of green and purple and gold,
The good earth is decked with many coloured jewels.
Like a woman of elegant taste
And charm of mellowed ease.

Thrilled with the pleasing sound
Of the sombre cloud that heralds storm,
Groups of gay amorous peacocks
Rend the air with their jubilant cries
To hail the friendly rain;
And spreading wide their jewelled trains,
With the love-play of the kiss and embrace.
They hold their gorgeous dance parade.

Hearing down the trees on the banks
With swirling torrents of turbid waters.
Rivers go surging to join the sea;
So, too, wanton women bespatter
The men of their clan with mire
By the vehemence of their wild desire.
And hasten to meet their wooer.

The slopes of Mount Vindhya,
Where the young green grass is springing
And the gentle does browse to cull a mouthful;
And the woods, where the trees in bloom are clad
In all the glory of their bursting leafage,
Elate and charm the soul of man.

There the meadows and sylvan glades
That abound in herds of the timorous deer,
Whose tremulous liquid eyes
Share the loveliness of the newborn utpala,
Rouse memories of soft adorings
That come crowding to the lonely wanderer.

Even in the blinding darkness
Of sombre, beclouded nights.
Despite the pouring rain and thunder.
Romantic women seeking adventure
Hie to their trysting-place.
While flashes of indulgent lightning
Guide them on their dark way.

Often the sheeted lightning,
Followed by a deafening crash of thunder,
And its lingering terrifying sound.
Scare the young wife into longing;
She nestles close and embracing her lover Forgives the error of his ways.

The young wives of voyagers.
In despair and fevered unrest.
Wait and fidget
For the golden hour of the loved one’s return;
They discard the chaplets of flowers.
Their trinkets and knick-knacks of beauty;
Like pearly dew on tender foliage
The tear-drops fall from their lotus eyes,
And moisten the twitching lower lip
Red-ripe like the bimba fruit.

The Carrying vermin, mud, and wisps of straw,
The turbid grey waters
Are watched by the terrified frogs,
Hurrying in tortuous serpentine ways
Heading for the sloping patch of land.

The deluded bees sweetly humming.
Forsake the lotus plant
Now reft of leaf and flower.
And crowd overeager on the discs
On the brilliant plumes of dancing peacocks,
Mistaking them for new lotuses.

Wild elephants, delirious with pride,
Fiercely trumpeting, ever and anon
Challenge the thunder of the clouds;
And the region of their temples.
Flowing with ichor,
Is, like the lovely indigo lily,
The haunt of murmurous bees.

The granite peaks of the mountain are kissed
By cloudlets floating like the silver lotus;
And all its gulleys and springs and rills
Are flowing and bubbling with water;
The mind is enthralled by the sight of the hills
Alive with the bustling peacocks.

Couched by the moisture-laden clouds.
The humid breeze is cool
And fragrant with the blossoms
Of kadamba, sarja, arjuna and ketaki
Whom it mirthfully shakes;

Who does not feel, in the quiet of content.
That something’s amiss —
An ache in the heart.
Or a tinge of sorrow!

Maids, with their gorgeous hair
Drooping to the hips,
With pendants of fragrant sprays on the ears.
The bosom decked with strings of pearls,
And the lips moist with wine,
Fill their lovers’ minds with longing.

The clouds, hanging low.
Laden with rain.
And adorned by flashes of lightning.
And gleaming with the rainbow hues;
And the maids, with their glittering girdles
And bejewelled ear-rings.
Capture in the same moment
The lone wayfarer’s vulnerable mind.

Maidens now adorn their heads
With chaplets of fresh-woven blooms
Of kadamba, bakula and ketaki.
And design the trinkets, at will, for the ear.
With tassels of kakubha blossoms.

The young wedded wife.
Richly anointed with sandal salve
And the aromatic incense of aguru.
And her lovely hair coiffure.
Decked with fragrant blooms.
Hearkening to the rumble of the clouds.
When the azure dusk is falling.
Slips from the elders’ apartments
And hastens to the slumber-room.

The clouds,
dark like blue lotus leaves,
Towering in eminence but humble,
Bent ’neath the burden of water;
Nod to the gentle breeze
And stroll across heavens
With lazy steps;
Adorned with the tinted bow of Indra,
They draw by mysterious enchantment.
The hearts of lonely maids
Pining for the straying lovers.

The woodland, where the fire is quenched
By the newly sprinkled showers.
Is gaily decked with kadamba tassels
In joyous celebration.
It is dancing merrily; its waving boughs
Of trees are tossed by playful winds;
It seems to be smiling sweetly
Through the sharp white blades of the ketaki leaves.

This season with its cluster of clouds, I ween,
Is like a dexterous lover,
For it deftly weaves round the heads of maidens
Chaplets of bakula flowers
Interlaced with malati blossoms;
It designs fresh trinkets for their ears
With wreaths of new blooms
And opening buds of the yuthika creeper
And full blown kadamba flowers.

Thrilled with the fresh earth-scented air,
And the drip and drizzle of falling drops,
Youthful women express their joy of life
With strings of pearls on their dainty breasts.
The soft white linen on their perfect hips.
And the glamour of the undulant waist line.

The wayward wind, wanderer in the sky,
Cooled by the touch of the fresh clean raindrops.
Rustles the leaves of trees
Bowed with the load of flowers.
And makes them dance;
Fragrant with the charming odour
Of the golden pollen of the ketaki.
It steals the heart of lonely lovers.

The wooded height of Vindhya is the rest-house
Of the likes of us bent with the burden of water;
So say the rain-clouds and, bending low,
They gladden the mountain.
Licked by the crimson tongues of fire.
With heavy showers of rain.

May this period of the rain-giving clouds.
Charming with its many attractions.
The dream of delight of romantic maids.
Unselfish friend of trees and vines.
And the breath of life of animate beings.
Grant you your heart’s inmost desires !




Behold! the lady Autumn comes
Clad in the silver kasa blossoms,
Her fair visage is the white lotus bloom,
The tinkling of her anklet bells is heard
In the tuneful cry of wild geese on high;
The harvest of rice with ripening sheaves,
Bending in billows in the fresh young breeze,
Is her graceful figure and supple body;
She emulates the charming bride
With white bridal vesture and lily-like face,
The jingling anklets and slender figure.
And the shoulders bowed with decorous modesty
And woman’s gentle grace.

The earth is blanched by kasa blooms.
The night by the silvery moonbeams.
The waters of the rivers are white with the hamsa.
And the pools with the new-born lilies;
The precincts of the woodland are gleaming
With the riot of saptachadda trees
Bending with the burden of flowers;
And gardens are gay with the fragrant blooms
Of the rambling malati vine.
And all is white that greets our eyes.

The lucid streams move slow
Like lovely dames grown restful and mellow.
With soft footfall.
And step unhurried;
The sparkling shafari is their glittering girdle.
The cygnets and drakes are their necklace of pearls.
And the flanks of expansive sands
Are their generous hips.

The puffs of clouds, hung in the air,
Free from rain, eased of their burden,
Are swayed by the wind in their hundreds;
Gleaming like the silver sea-shell.
Or the pallid lotus stalk,
Heaven’s canopy is resplendent like a king
Fanned by a hundred yak-tails.

The sky is a lovely deep blue
Like the powdered collyrium.
The earth, like the dawn of day, is tinged
Pink with the pollen of bandhuka blooms,
The fields are bright with burgeoning green
Where kalama rice has been sown;
Where is the youth whose heart
Does not throb with glamorous longing?

Amidst the kovidara trees.
In whose waving boughs
And tender young foliage
Mixed with the bursting flower-buds.
The breeze skims merrily.
There is a soft whispering turbulence of leaves;
And there the delirious bees
Are greedily sucking the flowing honey;
Whose heart does not swell with joy
At the sight of these lovely trees?

The sky is translucent When rain is done.
And the moon, free from the web of clouds.
Has lifted the veil;
The nights of Autumn, starred and gentle.
Garbed in the spotless fabric of moonlight.
Resemble the moon-face maiden
Decked in her trinkets,
Clad in pure white linen,
And growing in length each day.

The peckings of numerous wild ducks
Ruffle the water of the streams,
And make encircling wavelets;
And the banks are thronged
With the kalahamsa and sarasa.
While the cry of the migrant goose
Is resonant everywhere.
Gladdening the hearts of men.

The moon is a pageant of delight for the eyes,
With rays of light woven into garlands.
Streaming coolness and ravishing the heart;
Yet lo I the moon darts fire from frosty beams.
Burning like a poisoned shaft
The delicate limbs of the lovely maid
Pining in separation from her man.

Shaking the fruitful crops of paddy.
Scurrying over the tops of noble trees
Bowed with the weight of flowers.
And startling the lily new-born In the full-blown lotus fields.
The sky-borne breeze, perforce. Perturbs the mind of youths.

The lakes, necklaced with the curving waves
Swayed by the lazy morning breeze,
And adorned with the hamsa
Enamoured of its mate,
And decked with the full-blown stainless lotus,
And the deep-hued indigo lily,
Transport the heart with glee.

Now the bow of Indra
Has vanished in the womb of the clouds.
And the lightning, banner of heaven.
Has ceased to flash;
The cranes with their flapping wings
Agitate the air no longer,
No more do eager-eyed peacocks
Strain their necks to scan the sky.

Forsaking the peacocks.
Who refrain from the dance,
Love draws near to the swans
Whose voice is rich and tender;
And deserting the kutaja and kadamba.
The arjuna, sarja and nipa wood.
The radiant Lakshmi of blossoms
Honours the saptachadda tree.

The pleasure parks are redolent
With the scent of the fragrant shephalika.
And echo the gladsome twitter
Of numerous care-free birds;
And on their fringe the docs are standing.
Whose eyes replace the charming lily;
The park in Autumn stirs the hearts of men

Shaking the kalhara, padma and kumuda,
And furthermore cooled by their touch.
Autumn The breeze, at morn, grows more enticing
As it playfully rocks the dew-drops
Hidden in the folds of the leaves.

The rolling fields of abundant rice.
The echo of the tuneful cry
Of flocks of hamsa and sarasa
From the fringe of the landscape.
And the ploughy texture of the land
Adorned by the silent kine,
Gladden the hearts of men.

The swan has triumphed, by its alluring movements,
Over women of perfect figures,
The full-blown silver lotus has stolen
The charm of their radiant faces,
The delicate nenuphar excels
Their beautiful tremulous eyes;
And their arched delicate eyebrows.
The least bit raised, are rivalled
By the slender rippling wavelets
In the pellucid water of the pools.

The priyangu creeper’s sprays
Laden with flowers steal the grace
Of women’s arms decked with jewels.
And the gay blossoms of the malati.
Mated with the flowering asoka.
Vie with the glint of women’s teeth
Beneath their radiant smile.

Maids decorate their mass of curly hair.
Dark like the rain-cloud.
With the fresh huds of the trailing malati,
And add to the exquisite trinkets of gold
Fresh blue lily buds on the ears.

Women whose hearts are radiant with love
Still use the sandal cream
And a necklace of pearls on the bosom;
They add to the beauty of their ample hips
By the charm of the circling girdle;
And the anklets in symphony sweet
Caress their lotus feet.

The calm field of the Autumn sky, free from the turgid clouds
Spangled with emerging stars, and glazed by the moonlight,
Shares the exceeding glory
Of pools of sparkling water, crystal clear.
Dotted with flowering lotus and lily.
And flashing with the silver wings of swans.

The breeze is balmy cool in Autumn,
Mingling with the moon-lilies;
The directions are lovely.
With the scattered silver cloudlets;
The waters cease to be turbid grey.
And the ground is free from mud and marsh;
An amazing display of the constellations,
And the impeccable lustre of the moon.
Declare the glory of the sky.

Roused by the sunbeams at sunrise
The pankaja reveals its face.
Radiant like a young maiden
When the light of the moon is fading
The smile slips from the petals of the kumuda
Like the flicker of the smile
From the young wife’s lips
When the loved one is going far away.

The traveller is now bewildered
To see in the utpala bloom
The dark beauty of his sweetheart’s eyes.
And in the blossoming bandhujiva tree
The freshness of her lips enshrined;
And he chokes as he hearkens
To the dulcet note of the amorous hamsa
Vying with the jingle of her golden girdle.

Or perchance, at the advent of the glorious Autumn,
Pearly radiance forsaking the moon
Resorts to the faces of beautiful women;
And the tuneful cry of the hamsa
Is lost in their bejewelled anklets;
While the charm of the bandhuka blossoms
Is merged in their lovely lips.

May Autumn, whose face is the open lotus
And whose eyes are the full-blown nenuphar’s.
In robes of purest white arrayed
With the new-blown kasa blossoms,
Grant you, like the ardent sweetheart.
The favours your heart desires!



Early Winter

The spreading barley gleams
With a tender green embroidery.
The harvest of rice is ripening;
The lodhra trees are aflower.
And the lilies are fading away,
And so the falling dews
Usher the pleasant season of frost.

The the gleaming moon,
The snow, or kunda bloom,
The lovely rope of pearls.
Where colourful sandal cream is mirrored.
No more adorns the breasts of elegant maids.

Ro more the golden chains of the girdle.
Studded with many a gem,
Adorn the hips of dames;
Nor are their lotus feet caressed
By tuneful anklets
Vying with the mallard’s note.

The women of fashion no longer endure
The cool touch on their arms
Of armlets and bracelets.
Nor thin smooth linen on their hips.
Nor on their abundant breasts
The light transparent raiment.

Youthful women use on their limbs
The powder perfumed with kaleyaka
And make up their lotus faces,
With tracings of laksha juice ;
And the incense of the kalaguru
Lends a finishing touch to the hair
As they prepare to meet their men
The feast of love to share.

Albeit their faces are wan and pale.
Youthful women are happy
And serene with love fulfilled ;
Scanning the parched aching lips
They refrain from laughing aloud.

The dewdrops slipping from the blades of grass
Are the tears shed by the winter
Weeping at morn.
Distressed at the rigorous pressure
On the limbs and bodies of maidens
To which the season lends a peerless grace.

The fields covered to the furthest bournes
With rich crops of paddy,
And their fringes adorned with herds of deer,
And the midlands resounding with the distant cry
of the beautiful demoiselle crane
Which stirs the hearts of men.

The lakes, where the decorative lily is blooming,
And the amorous kalahamsa blends its grace.
The limpid waters and verdant weeds.
Steal the hearts of men.

The priyangu creeper, my love.
Is mellow and pale,
Swept by the wings of the icy wind.
Like the pallid face of the charming maid
Pining for her absent lover.

The mouths fragrant
With the wine perfumed with flowers.
And the sweet odour of the tender breath
Enveloping their limbs.
The young slumber,
Couched side by side,
Twined in each other’s arms.
Steeped in the luscious flavour of love.

To maids in the first flush of youth.
The dents of teeth on their faded lips.
And the marks of nails on the bosom.
Reveal the pitiless strain of love.

Behold ! the young maid, mirror in hand.
Making up her lotus face In the sidelong morning sun;
Pouting her mouth she scans her lips
Whose essence was sucked by the lover.

Here is another maid.
Her limbs are limp with love’s surfeit.
The lotus eyes are red
With the wakeful night of rapture;
The gorgeous hair lies ruffled
On the drooping shoulders;
She basks in the soft delicious sunshine.
With the burden of sleep upon her lids.
Soothing her limbs in sated rest,

And other young women
Free the chaplets of faded flowers,
Whose charming fragrance has had its hour.
From their dark mass of hair ;
They nag, I ween, at the weight of breasts
More abundant than their years,
By the slight stoop in their slender figures;
They are busy refashioning their hair.

Here is a maid who is radiant
At the sight of her body enjoyed by her lover ;
Whilst wearing the bodice on aching limbs
Bruised by the pressure of his finger nails,
She puckers up her charming lips into a smile
While the ringlets of soft black hair get loosened
And cover her eyelids.

Other young women of beauty and charm
Are feeling the strain and weariness
Since the surcease of love’s harmony,
And their slender limbs are languishing ;
When the masseuse is rubbing
The swinging line of shoulder.
The deep fold of the thighs.
And the nipples pressing upward.

May this season of frost with manifold charms
And with the peace of the dreaming landscape.
When the fields are mellow and fruitful with rice ;
Ever pleasant and encircled by the calling krauncha
Moving the maids to the depth of their souls,
Add to your welfare and joy!





The breath of Winter comes
Stealing into the lush greenery of fields of sugarcane
While yet the earth is spread
With the well-grown paddy;
Hark! my love, for somewhere
The demoiselle cranes are calling.
Bringing pretty maids and jaunty youths
The message of crazy love.

To slam casements and window panes
Of living rooms is a joy,
Welcome are the blazing fires of faggots
And the warmer lazy sunbeams;
One longs now for heavier garments;
Tis for youthful maidens
The true season for enjoyment.

No more the fragrant sandal salve
Cooled by the moonbeams.
Nor open terrace nor balcony,
Bathed by the silver moon of autumn.
Nor gentle breezes chilled by heavy frost,
Delight the people’s minds.

The starlit-nights of winter.
Decked with the sparkling constellations,
Are icy cold with frost.
And colder still by moonlight.
In the piercing chill.
They are not enjoyed in the open air.

Ardent wives repair to their sumptuous bower
Filled with the fragrant wreaths of aguru smoke,
Taking with them the tambula leaf and pigment,
The chaplets of flowers and knick-knacks of vanity;
And their lotus-mouths are scented
With the wine perfumed with flowers.

Hatching the face shadowed by thought —
In tremor of fear and numb—of the husband
Spurned and reproved for many a lapse,
The proud young wife relents,
And, longing for love and tenderness,
She weans her thoughts from the past.

In the retired quiet of long winter nights
Lusty youths are ruthless
In the revels and sports of love;
When the night has drained away,
The young wives are limp with tired limbs,
And gingerly tread their way.

Women hail the advent of winter.
They are an adornment to the stars,
With the bosom enfolded in tight bodices
And the limbs in colourful silk attired.
And flowers entwined in the coiffure.

Young lovers conquer the wintry cold
By the glow of their warm fresh youth,
The glorious age meant to savour love’s delight ;
Pillowed on the beloved’s fair breast.
Reflecting the ochre saffron hue.
They lie, with arms embraced.
And limbs interlaced
In peace and slumberous calm.

Joyous maids’ sip during winter nights.
In the company of their lovers,
Delightful and choice wines
For love’s awakening and pleasure,
While the lilies floating on the wine cups
Quiver with the fragrant breath of their lips.

In the silver morning the young bride.
Sobered with the overstrain of love’s delight,
Sees the nipples of her breasts,
And the resilient limbs embraced by the loved one;
She goes from her sleeping-room to other rooms
With a smile concealed on the fringe of her lips,

While another youthful maid.
With navel deep and ample hips,
And lovely slender waist,
Is just about to leave the bed;
In the early morning hour
She is loosely binding the ends
Of her gorgeous curly hair perfumed with aguru
In which the chaplet of flowers is fading.

In the splendour of the morn,
Women in their homes.
With their fresh skins like the golden glowing lotus,
The roseate lower lips, and long eyelids.
Stretched to the ears, suffused at the rims.
Their beauteous oval faces.
And on their shoulders the lovely hair
Tumbling in cascades,
Bear the semblance of Lakshmi.

Other youthful women with slender waists
And the burthen of hips and ample bosom,
Tread with languid steps;
They soon overcome the strain of love
As they change into vestments
Fit for the day.

In the rising light of the dawn.
The maids examine their limbs
For scars and nail marks;
Fingering the lower lips,
Tender like new-born leaves.
They blush; and rejoicing at love’s fulfilment
Proceed to make up their faces.

May this Winter time
Rich in dainties, sweets, and lucent syrups.
Charming with the fields of rice.
And cloying with the juice of the sugarcane,
Warm with love’s awakening
And happy fulfilment,
But painful to pining lovers.
Tend to your bliss for ever!





The warrior Spring,
Comes with armorial bearing.
Armed with the nimble shafts
Of the swelling mango blossom.
And the murmurous line of bees
Is the twang of his lustrous bowstring ;
He is shooting his flowery arrows, my dear.
To pierce the hearts of lovers.

The trees aflower are crowned with glory,
The waters are strewn with lotus and lily.
The balmy breeze liberates fragrance.
And maidens are filled with dreams of love ;
The languid perfection of the day
“Wanes to a quivering twilight.
And all that breathes, or moves, or blossoms,
Is sweeter, my love, in Spring.

The breath of Spring is in the air,
Spilling its richness everywhere.
It is stroking the waters of the pools.
Coaxing the lilybuds to emerge unscared.
Chiding the jewels aglimmer in the moon
It caresses the girdles
Encircling the waists of maidens.
And it is urging the mango trees
To flaunt their blossoms
In the eye of day.

At the hint of Spring,
Lovely women blend the charm
Of their peerless figures
With colourful linen vestments.
Dyed in the juice of the kusumbha bloom;
And the region of the bosom is adorned
By fine raiment of ochre brown
Stained with saffron hue.

The fresh blossom of the karnikara
Meet for the ear, and a wreath of asoka blooms,
And full-blown flowers of the navamallika vine,
On their wavy dark hair,
Enhance the grace of beauteous maids.

Glamorous maidens wrapt in love
Resume their necklaces
Wet with the liquescent sandal on their breasts,
And their intimate wristlets and armlets;
And they wear anew the girdle on their hips.

On elegant maidens’ faces,
Shining like the lovely golden lotuses.
And adorned with tracings of cosmetics.
Beads of sweat appear
Like pearls that embrace
The beauty of other gems.

The maids snuggling beside their men.
Draw breath quickly,
Disturbing the rhythm of the breasts.
Their clothing is loosened.
And their limbs relax, flecked by desire;
Young maids are tense in Spring,
Attuned to love’s instinct.

Love, the immortal god impersonate,
Makes pale and fragile maidens
Inclined to yawn and languish.
Alive with ethereal quickness.
And they learn to reveal their charm,
With beauty and grace.

In Spring the bodiless Love permeates
The limbs of a maiden, in manifold ways;
Into the visionless eyes,
That are dulled by wine,
He puts a sparkle and a softness;
He is the pallor of the cheeks,
And the hardness of the breasts;
He moulds the slimness of the waist.
The fall and swing of the hips.
It is love’s beauty itself
That shines through her loveliness.

Gathering all her charm in the lines of her body.
Love lends the youthful maid
A touch of drowsy lassitude,
And a little lisp to her speech.
As if tipsy with wine;
He adds the arched remoteness to the delicate brows,
And tilts her glances
Beneath the drooping lashes of the eyelids.

Graceful women.
Imbued with the wayward indolence of youth.
Adorn again their fair breasts with sandal salve.
Mixed with priyangu, kaliyaka and saffron.
And the scent from the musk deer’s navel.

And discarding heavy garments,
Those whose limbs are overcome
By love’s lassitude
Soon assume the lighter vesture.
Dyed in laksha juice and scented
With the incense of black aguru.

The male cuckoo, crazy with joy,
Imbibing mango juice,
Is drunk as with wine.
And lovingly kisses its sweetheart;
And even the buzzing bee,
In the folds o£ the lotus petals.
Murmurs sweet nothingness.
And compliments its mate.

The mango trees are a blaze of colour.
The new foliage flecked with coppery sheen,
And their bursting blossoms.
Swinging as they list in the breeze,
Dazzle the minds of maids.
And they catch their breath
With golden new excitement.

Watching with a rapt seriousness
The clusters of flowers,
Red like coral beads.
Mingling with the leafage,
Down to the ground.
Of asoka trees.
The hearts of youths in love’s transcendence
Are touched with a tinge of melancholy.

The young atimukta.
The clinging vine.
Whose lovely blossoms are kissed by the crazy bees,
And whose soft tendrils aquiver
Bend in the gentle breeze,
Arrests the eyes of enamoured couples;
Sudden their hearts are filled
With the flowing stream of love.

At sight of the surpassing beauty
Of new-born kurabaka blossom.
Rivalling the radiance of the beloved’s face,
Which youthful bosom, my dear.
Is not fired with desire,
Smitten with the shaft of love?

The Spring has adorned the earth, in a trice,
With the groves of palasha trees aflower
Swinging in. the breeze.
Bowed with the load of blossom
Resembling flaming fire.
The earth looks like a newly-wed bride
In lovely red attire.

When the palasha flowers have burst
Shrill-red like the parrot’s beak.
Does naught remain to pierce;
And what, in sooth, is unconsumed
By the flame-colour karnikara bloom
That the cuckoo with its plaintive air
Fain would stab the hearts of youths
Pledged to maidens fair.

The voice of the joyous male cuckoo
Quavers as he sings
The sweet words of his haunting melody.
And the murmur of the intoxicated bees,
Reaches even maidens sheltered
By convention and modest upbringing,
And fills them with a rapture of expectancy,
Making them tremble with delight.

Waving the mango boughs in bloom.
And spreading, in all directions.
The fleeting melody of the cuckoo birds.
The breeze in Spring,
Charming since the surcease of frost.
Blows softly and wins the hearts of men.

The gardens are gay with the kunda blooms,
White like the gleaming smile of glamorous maids,
Provoking the mind of love-free saints
And even more the fancy of love-stained youths.

In the month of Chaitra,
Ringing with the sweet birdsong of the cuckoo.
And the murmur of the wild-bees.
Maidens, with their dangling girdles,
And roped gleam of necklace on the bosom.
Their supple limbs wholly relaxed,
And subdued by the mighty strength of love,
Enrapture by force.
The hearts of men,

The sight of the hills adorned with trees
And the varied lovely blossoms,
The sequestered peaks ringing with the echo
Of the voices of singing birds.
And the crevices of rocks strewn with alpine flowers.
Comfort the longing eyes.

Seeing the mango trees in bloom.
The passer-by, parted from his loved one,
Feels the bitter tears of umbrage
And yearning scorching his eyes,
And, placing the arm across his face.
He wails and sobs aloud.

In this flower-month,
The hovering bee with the balmy spoil of honey,
The cuckoo with its melodious lilt.
And the mango and karnikara trees
With their glory of blossoms;
Tempt the proud girl’s mind
With stinging darts of the swoop of thought
Kindling the flame of love.

With the veiled barbs of the tender mango blossom.
And his good bow the charming palasha bloom,
The mazy line of bees for his bow-string.
The spotless canopy of silken moonbeams.
The low south wind from Malaya
For his lordly rutting elephant.
And the singing cuckoo birds for his chanting minstrels;
May the bodiless Kama,
Bosom friend of Vasanta,
And sovereign conqueror of the world,
Bring to the growing generation
Hours filled with bliss!


What one intends, and what one plans, and whatever one has a tendency towards it becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness.
This basis, is a support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is established and has come to growth, with it name and form is created. With name and form there is condition, the six senses come to be.

If then one does not intend, and one does not plan, but one still has a tendency towards something, this becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is a basis, there is a support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is established and has come to growth, there is creation of name and form. With name and form as condition, the six senses come to be.

This is the origin of suffering.

If one does not intend or plan and does not have a tendency towards anything, no basis exists for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is no basis, there is no support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is unestablished and does not come to growth, there is no descent of name and form. With the cessation of name and form comes cessation of the six senses.

This is the cessation of suffering.

Multiple factors like atman (soul), mana (mind), rasa (fluid), shad dhatu (six elements), matru-pitru (parents), karma (past deeds), svabhava (nature), Prajapati (Creator), and kala (time) have been considered as the source of creation of the purusha (human beings). The same factors are considered responsible for origin of diseases.

In order to sustain health, one shall follow a wholesome diet and restrain from following unwholesome diets and activities.

The best things shall be used as first choice in various respective conditions (samgraha).

Those food articles that help maintain a state of equilibrium among body elements (dhatus) and also help in eliminating imbalances that could occur due to abnormalities are considered to be wholesome food articles, while those articles that act in an opposite manner are known to be unwholesome articles.

Classification of food articles could be done by their suitability for consumption, source (vegetarian or non-vegetarian), effects on body (wholesome or unwholesome), mode of consumption (to eat, to drink, to chew or to lick), six tastes and twenty (gunas) qualities. There could be innumerable combinations.

Dietary preparations and drugs that do not affect the body system adversely, and those that are liked by the mind are considered pathya (wholesome). Likewise, those that adversely affect the body system and are disliked by the mind are considered apathya (unwholesome).

Drugs and food articles are also considered wholesome or unwholesome depending upon the dose (measure/quantity), time, mode of preparation, habitat of the drugs or food articles, individual’s constitution, and dosha.

Sharad Navratri, Durga Puja and Recipes

Bear with me, this is a long post. You can research more online if you want but here is most you will need to understand about Durga Puja and Navratri, the nine nights of Devi.

Durga Puja, also called Durgotsava and Navratri, is an annual Hindu festival in the Indian subcontinent that reveres the goddess Durga.Durga Puja is celebrated during Devi Paksha which is 15 days period of Ashwin lunar month as per Hindu calendar. Devi Paksha begins on the next day of Sarvapitru Amavasya and ends on Kojagori Lokkhi Puja. Devi Paksha literally translates to “Fortnight of the Goddess”.

Durga puja is particularly popular in West Bengal, Odisha, Assam and Tripura, and the diaspora from this region. It is one of the bigger religious festivals of India which is celebrated throughout the country with great zeal and fervour. Durga Puja is particularly celebrated in the state of West Bengal in Kolkata in the honour of celebrating the unfathomable power of Goddess Durga. Whereas Navratri is very popular festival in the western states of Gujarat, Maharashtra and the southern state of Karnataka. The festivals are celebrated during the span of whole period of Navratri for a time span of 10 days. From the sixth day of Navratri till the ninth day the huge pandaals of the Goddess Durga are open for the visitors. The tenth day of the Navaratri is called as Dashami and on this day the idols of the Goddess Durga are immersed into water and this process is called as Visarjan. This year in 2017, dashami is falling on 30th September.

Durga Puja 2017 will begin on Tuesday, 26 September and ends on Saturday, 30 September but you may want to check the time for where you are on this planet. It will vary. As well these celebrations are done differently in different parts of India.

Navratri is celebrated five times a year and typically at the junction of Ritu change. They are also based upon the lunar calendar so the exact dates change every year. Navratri is the best time to subdue and bring into alignment the shadow planet Rahu. Rahu represents the demon in our mind, our desires that bind us to the material world. Obsessions. For those who want to pacify Rahu, or even improve its influence in their chart, Navratri is the best time for Rahu Sadhana, as Durga is the cosmic force and the remedy that destroys all inner and outer demons. It is useful to fast and worship and meditate upon Durga during these nine nights, with the mindset to overcome our inner fears and the resolve to confront and overcome our weaknesses. The fact that millions are chanting the Durga mantra during these nine days and nights further accentuates our personal sadhana.

Lord Rama worshipped Goddess Durga before going to war with Ravana. He had performed Chandi Homa and sought the blessing of Goddess Durga before going to war. As Lord Rama was blessed with victory over powerful demon Ravana, this time of the year is considered the most suitable to seek blessings of Goddess Durga and to perform Chandi Homa.

As per Devi Mahatmya, Durga Puja festival marks the victory of Goddess Durga over Mahishasura. Hence Durga Puja festival is observed as the victory of good over evil.

There is much more detail to what is done every day but this is a brief overview.

The festivities Durga Puja last for ten days and the main ritual is only for the last four days. Each day of Durga Puja has a special significance and the preparation for the festivals begin months before the festival.

On the day of the ‘Rath Yatra’ or the Chariot Festival, the artisans make the foundation for the Pratima – Durga effigy. Part of the clay used in the festival is brought with the blessings of Courtesans or sex workers, signifying the all encompassing love of the mother. Some people also believe it is because, courtesans are believed to be adept at all the arts. A special puja is done before the collection of the clay.

The Pratima is made over the next two months by skilful craftsmen who have been doing this work for generations. They have mastered the art of making beautiful effigies, which in themselves are exquisite pieces of art.

Mahalaya day, or the first day of Durgotsav, is the day the Goddess is invited to come to earth with her children with Agomoni. It is the last day of the Pitri Paksha and the day of new moon. Historically this day has come to be associated with ‘Mahisasur Mardini’, an All India Radio program that plays the Chandi Path and Bhakti songs in Bengali in West Bengal and in Hindi all over India.

The ‘Chakkhu Daan’ – literally, the giving of eyes ritual, happens on the day of Mahalaya. The eyes of the Devi are drawn on this day. This ritual signifies the spirit of the Goddess getting instilled in the clay effigy.

India celebrates Durga Puja wherein the community comes together for a ‘Sarbojanin Puja’ – community worship. Huge decorative structures called ‘Pandals’ are constructed for the prayers, bhog and cultural functions. These pandals are mostly temporary structures and are made especially for the festival.

On the sixth day of the moon called Shasthi, Durga is welcomed with a ritual called ‘Bodhon’ in which the Pratima is unveiled for the public. Mothers fast for their children and their wellbeing. The fast is broken in the evening with fruits, vegetable and pooris.

The next day, Saptami starts with the bath of ‘Kola Bou’ – Banana Plantain. The twigs of white aparajita plant along with nine bunches of yellow threads are used to tie the Nabapatrika and then it is bathed in holy water.

Nabapatrika or the nine plants of worship depicts nine forms of goddess Durga. The banana plant represents Goddess Brahmani, the Colacassia plant represents Goddess Kalika, the Turmeric plant symbolises Devi Durga, the Jayanti plant denotes Kartiki, the Wood apple represents Goddess Shivaa (another name for Durga), the Pomegranate represents Raktadantika, the Ashoka tree symbolizes Sokrahita, and the Arum plant represents Chamunda and the Rice plant Goddess Lakshmi.

This ritual predates the Durga Puja Celebration as it derives from the nature worshipping rituals of the farming communities in east India, as this time also coincides coincidentally with harvest time.

Ashtami is the most important day of Durga Puja. Pushpanjali (offerings of flowers) is offered in the morning and Aarati is done by the priest. This is also the day of Prana Pratishthana – infusing of life in the murti. In this ritual the Pratima is reflected on a wide bowl of water.

At the time when Navami begins and Ashtami ends, Sandhi Puja is performed. It was at this moment Devi Durga transformed into Devi Chamunda to kill ‘Chand’ and ‘Mund’, the two generals of the demon Mahishasura. A 108 diyas are lit during the Sandhi Puja and dhak is played with fervency and people dance to the beats.

It is customary to perform a sacrifice during the Sandhi Puja. Obviously only a symbolic animal sacrifice is performed these days with vegetables like banana, cucumber or pumpkin.

Subhasini Puja, Kanya Puja, and Dampati Puja are observed on Mahanavami day in Navratri. On this day, the goddess Durga is worshipped in the form of Aparajita, and is offered sugarcane stalks. This day signifies Durga’s victory over Mahishasur (The Buffalo Demon). This the last day of last day of Durga Puja and a Navami Bhog is served to the people. Goddess Durga is offered food which is later distributed among the devotees. The ninth day of Navratri is also called the Ayudha Puja. This is the day we worship our tools and instruments, and other objects used in daily life because they help us achieve our goals. It is the manifestation of our earthly being.

Dashami is the day when Goddess Durga and her children set off for Kailash, her husband’s abode. Starting with Sindur Khela – married women play with vermillion like on Holi, and apply it on each other and give sweets to each other. This day is also called the Vijaya Dashami, celebrating the victory of Durga over the Mahisasur. Durga’s victory against Mahishasura has been taken to signify not just the fight between gods and demons or good versus evil, but also the concepts of truth and mental illumination triumphing over falsehood and ignorance.

At the bottom there are recipes for food to be following during this time. Enjoy. 

Nava Durga are the manifestations of Durga in nine different forms. The concept of Navdurga originates from Goddess Parvati. Conceptually Navdurga is the life phase of Goddess Parvati who is considered supreme power among all Goddesses.
List of Navdurga
  1. Devi Siddhidatri – In the beginning of the universe Lord Rudra worshipped Adi-Parashakti for creation. It is believed that Goddess Adi-Parashakti had no form. The supreme Goddess of Power, Adi-Parashakti, appeared in the form of Siddhidatri from the left half of Lord Shiva.
  2. Devi Kushmanda – After taking form of Siddhidatri, Goddess Parvati started living inside the center of the Sun so that He can liberate energy to the universe. Since then Goddess is known as Kushmanda. Kushmanda is the Goddess who has the power and capability to live inside the Sun. The glow and radiance of her body is as luminous as that of the Sun.
  3. Devi Brahmacharini – After Kushmanda form, Goddess Parvati took birth at the home of Daksha Prajapati. In this form the Goddess Parvati was a great Sati and her unmarried form is worshipped as Goddess Brahmacharini.
  4. Devi Shailputri – After the self-immolation as Goddess Sati, Goddess Parvati took birth as the daughter of Lord Himalaya. In Sanskrit Shail means the mountain and due to which Goddess was known as Shailputri, the daughter of the mountain.
  5. Devi Mahagauri – According to Hindu mythologies, the Goddess Shailputri at the age of sixteen was extremely beautiful and was blessed with fair complexion. Due to her extreme fair complexion she was known as Goddess Mahagauri.
  6. Devi Chandraghanta – Goddess Chandraghanta is the married form the Goddess Parvati. After getting married to Lord Shiva Goddess Mahagauri started adorning her forehead with half Chandra and due to which Goddess Parvati was known as Goddess Chandraghanta.
  7. Devi Skandamata – When Goddess became the mother of Lord Skanda (also known as Lord Kartikeya), Mata Parvati was known with the name of Goddess Skandamata.
  8. Devi Katyayani – To destroy demon Mahishasura, Goddess Parvati took the form of Goddess Katyayani. It was the most violent form of Goddess Parvati. In this form Goddess Parvati is also known as Warrior Goddess.
  9. Devi Kalaratri – When the Goddess Parvati removed outer golden skin to kill demons named Shumbha and Nishumbha, She was known as Goddess Kalaratri. Kalaratri is the fiercest and the most ferocious form of Goddess Parvati.


Proper puja and reading of the Devi Mahatmya with full instructions and mantras etc is found here…. Devi Mahatmya and audio of the entire thing can be found here…. Audio but I believe most of this is way beyond the understanding of the readers here. This is the real thing.



Fasting is the act of refraining from having food and liquids for a period of time. It si the only real way of controlling the mind truly. Fasting brings about a spiritual awareness and is recognized as a technique to practice self-control. It brings about greater awareness of the body and its functions. It brings about greater awareness of one’s weaknesses and false emotional desires. Not having food and water for a period, is only the first stage to self control. With the process of fasting, one disciplines the mind. Fasting also helps to give rest to the physiological functions of the body. Warning to those that are vata predominant or have vata aggravation, don’t do fasting.

To please the goddess and to seek blessings from Durga Ma, many people keep fast during Durga puja. This traditional ritual of fasting is observed to honor the Devi for her triumph over evil. During the time of fast, the devotee should be in a state of self examination and tapas and put all the worldly pleasures behind. Reading the Devi Mahatmya and Chandi enables the devotee to concentrate and meditate.

One must rise early in the morning, bathe, wear new clothes and then offer prayers to Durga Ma. Many ways of fasting are followed during the Durga puja. Fasting can look like only having milk and fruits during the entire day, but not together. Another way is to have only one meal a day, after sunrise to before the sunset. Young girls or ‘Kumarikas’ are given food and gifts by those who observe fast, as part of the ritual on the day of Durga puja. Alcohol and non-vegetarian food is strictly forbidden while fasting. Generally, only 8 to 12 hours of fasting is observed during the puja. There are also general knowledge about how to come off a fast. You do not go out and have pasta or a burger with fries after, you need to build the digestion back to strength or you will have just caused the start of disease in your system by putting much to heavy food in your system that cannot be digested. (Warning: Naive westerners will say to you that the horrible feeling your feeling is because you are detoxing from fasting, but that is ignorance, it is because you have just created toxicity in your system, food poisoning can follow.)

Fasting is an important part of the auspicious festival of Durga Puja, observed by most all devout followers. It is believed that the ‘Devi’ bestows her blessings and fulfills the wishes of those who observe the fast during Durga Puja.



Best to fast


for the most of people reading this

instead of fasting…..

During the celebration the purpose is tapas, so indulgence should be avoided, and let your own viveka guide / give you the power to discriminate between what to eat and what not. Whatever you do, eat less.

What’s OK to eat –

1. Milk and milk products – milk, ghee, yogurt, cream (avoid the whipped ones in red spray like containers), fresh paneer, butter, butter milk (takra)

2. Fruits – generally all seasonal fruits

3. Dry fruits / nuts – all – cashews, almonds, dates, walnut, pecans, pine nuts, peanuts, raisins

4. Vegetables – traditionally vegetables that grow underground – potatoes yes potatoes although it is not a wholesome food in ayurveda it is still eaten widely at this time, sweet potatoes, yams which are not the sweet potatoes in the store (look up a elephant yam), taro root, arrow root.
5. Flours and seeds – Kuttu (buck wheat), Singora (water chestnut), sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds – flax seeds.
6. Sugars – generally all forms – guda, honey, sugar (organic), fruit nectars, etc. avoid artificial / synthetic sweeteners / syrups.
7. Natural fruit juices (avoid fermented ones like cider and also avoid frozen, packaged or bottled juices, only fresh. That being said, also juice is not taken in the Western 24 ounce per serving size. 4 ounces max per serving)
8. Chai / herbal teas. (again, a chai is not a 16 ounce glass of chai, 4 ounces per serving max)

What should be avoided –

1. All alcoholic, fermented and carbonated drinks
2. Smoking
3. Meat – all kinds of meat and products – beef, goat, pork, sea food, fish, eggs.
4. Cereals and grains – wheat and wheat flour, all purpose flour, all kinds of bread, rice, rice flour, rice milk, breakfast cereals, soy beans, soy milk, corn, tortillas, lentils and beans (all forms – moong, urad, kidney beans, black eyed beans, no exceptions), green peas, garbanzo beans, chick peas, besan / chick pea flour, millet, barley – essentially any grain that you can imagine.
5. Vegetables – onions, garlic, tomatoes, chilies, bell peppers, cauliflower, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, beans etc.



Navratri Special Recipes

Goddess evoking, moon pleasing, woo woo warrior goddess hero meaning making pitta-balancing foods:
1. No meat (beef, lamb), poultry (chicken, duck, turkey) or fish (or any form of seafood) for the nine days.
2. No grains: wheat, rice, barley, oatmeal, corn, etc. during Navratri.
3. Refrain from alcohol consumption and smoking.
4. No onion and garlic (since they are tamasic in nature) are used in the food during these nine days
5. Use only rock salt.
6. Spices used are black pepper corns (no dried red or fresh green chillies), cumin, black zeera, turmeric powder, cardamom.
7. Fresh herbs: coriander, curry leaves and ginger.
8. Can eat all fresh (and sweet, no sour) fruits, nuts and dairy products (no processed cheese).
9. Non-grain based flours used are – Singhara (water chestnut) flour, Kuttu
(buckwheat) flour, Sabudana (tapioca / sago) – available at Indian stores.
10. Ghee or unsalted butter is the medium for cooking.
11. Vegetables used are – potatoes, sweet potato, arbi (colocassia / taro root), raw banana (plantain), lemon, water chestnut, suran (yam), pumpkin, lauki (doodhi /opo), carrots and raw papaya.

Suggested shopping list:
The recipes are suggestions; you don’t have to cook them all!! So buy only what you are making.
· Sweet fruits like banana, apple, grapes, watermelon, peaches etc.
· Nuts: cashews, almonds, pine nuts, peanuts, walnut etc.
· Daily products: milk (cow milk ideal, goat milk OK, but NO soy or rice milk), butter.
· Vegetables: potatoes, sweet potatoes, raw green banana / plantains, pumpkin/butternut squash, carrots, cucumber.

· Groceries at Indian stores:
Vegetables: arbi, lauki (doodhi), water chestnuts, suran (yam).
Spices and herbs: cumin seeds, cumin powder, methi (fenugreek) seeds, black pepper corns, rock salt (aka sindaloo / sendha namak), turmeric powder, fresh ginger, curry leaves, green cardamom, cinnamon.
Others – Ghee, singhara / kuttu atta, saboodana, lotus seeds (makhana, if using).

And then this is how you do it…. the recipes

A. Drinks

· Put ¾ cup water, ¼ inch grated ginger, 1 ½ spoon sugar in a pan, cover and bring to a boil.
· Add 1 tsp. loose Orange Pekoe black tea (or you can use black tea bag) and let it boil for 1 minute.
· Add ¼ cup milk and bring it to another boil for about 1 more minute.

Takra Lassi Sweet
(Lassi is a yogurt drink, filling–can be a meal substitute–and helpful in digestion)
· 1 cup regular yogurt
· 2 tsp sugar (more the merrier!!)
· ¼ cup water
· 1 tsp. rose water or Kewda water (both available at Indian grocery stores) for fragrance / flavor (optional) Best if you’ve made your own
· Put all the ingredients in a blender, blend / frappe until smooth.
Best enjoyed in spring and summer.

Takra Lassi Salted
· 1 cup regular yogurt
· ¼ cup water
· ¼ cup roasted zeera (cumin) powder
· Salt to taste
· Put all the ingredients in a blender and blend / frappe until smooth.

Spiced Milk (serves as a meal substitute)
· Put 1 cup milk, 3-4 black pepper corns (crushed) ¼ tsp. turmeric, 2-3 crushed cardamom, 1 ½ tsp. sugar, 2-3 strands saffron in a pan.
· Heat and boil the milk for about 5 minutes on medium / low heat (make sure it spill).
· Strain and sip warm.

Yes, this is not the proper way to make takra, this is for the ease of it. Those that know how to make takra properly can.

B. Snacks

Arbi Patties / Cutlets
(Patties / cutlets made of Arbi / Taro root)
· 1 lb. medium sized Arbi / Taro root (available at Indian or Chinese stores and sometimes Wholefoods)
· 2 potatoes
· 2 tsp. fresh chopped coriander
· 2 tsp. grated coconut (available at Indian stores — you can use fresh or dried)
· 1 tsp. roasted and crushed peanuts
· 2-3 tsp. singhara or kuttu flour
· 7-8 crushed black pepper corns
· Salt to taste
· Ghee for deep frying

-Steam or pressure cook the Arbi and potatoes for about 10 minutes, let
cool and peel and mash.
-Mix all the ingredients except ghee and flour and cool in refrigerator for
about 15-20 minutes (you can use this time to make the Peanut -Yogurt
Chutney to go with these patties)
-Make small / medium sized balls with the mix and press it between the
palms to flatten them.
-Roll / dredge the patties in the flour (don’t discard the remaining flour, it
can be used for some other preparations) shake the excess flour.
-Deep fry in ghee until crispy and golden brown.
-Serve with chutney.

Batata Wada
For Batter
· 1 cup kuttu flour
· 1 tbsp singhara flour
· 1 tsp. arrowroot flour
· 1 tbsp. hot ghee
· 3-4 pinches turmeric powder
· salt to taste
· water

For Filling
· 3 potatoes, boiled & mashed
· 4-5 black pepper corns crushed
· 2 tbsp. coriander leaves finely chopped
· 1/2 tsp. cumin seeds
· 1 tbsp curry leaves finely chopped
· salt to taste
· 1 tbsp. ghee
· More ghee to deep fry!!!

-Mix all ingredients to make a smooth batter, it should coat the back of
a spoon thickly, keep aside till required.
-Heat ghee in a pan, add curry leaves and cumin seeds till fragrant and
-Add potato, salt, coriander, mix well.
-Cool a little, make round balls, keep aside till required.
-Heat ghee in frying pan.
-Dip each ball in batter, let gently into hot ghee.
-Fry on medium heat till light golden.
-Serve hot with coconut chutney.

C. Condiments

Peanut Yogurt Chutney
· ½ cup plain yogurt
· 1 tsp. roasted and crushed peanuts
· 4-5 black pepper corns crushed
· 2 tsp. fresh coriander
· 1 stalk of curry leaves
· ½ tsp. sugar
· ½ tsp ghee
· Salt to taste

-Beat the yogurt to make it smooth.
-In a small pan, heat the ghee and add curry leaves till they splutter
-Add ghee, curry leaves and all other ingredients into the yogurt and mix
really well.
-Refrigerate and served with Zeera Aloo, Arbi Patties or Singhara / Kuttu

Coconut Chutney
· 1 cup fresh grated coconut
· 4-5 ground black pepper
· 2 tbsp. coriander finely chopped
· 1 lemon juice extracted
· ½ tsp. sugar
· ½ tsp. cumin seeds
· salt to taste
· 1 tsp. ghee

-Put together coconut, coriander, sugar, salt, lemon juice and blend
using minimal water.
-Heat ghee in a small pan, add cumin seeds, allow to splutter.
-Pour chutney in a bowl, and pour the ghee and cumin on the chutney.
-Garnish with a tiny bit of chopped coriander if desired.
-Serve as accompaniment with parathas, khichdi, pakoras, etc.

D. Main dishes / Entrée

Jeera Aloo
(Potatoes with cumin seed)
· 3 peeled and boiled potatoes
· 1 tsp Jeera (cumin) seeds
· 6 black pepper corns – crushed
· 1 tbsp finely chopped coriander / cilantro leaves
· Juice of ½ lemon
· Salt to taste
· 2 tbsp ghee

-Cut boiled potatoes into bite size pieces.
-Heat ghee and sauté cumin seeds until fragrant
-Add chopped potatoes, stir and fry for about 5 minutes.
-Transfer to a bowl, add lemon juice, salt, crushed black pepper and coriander
-Toss well and serve.

Kachche kele ki subzi
(Plantain with cumin seed)
· 2 green bananas / plantains
· 1/4 tsp turmeric powder
· 6 crushed black pepper corns
· 1/2 tsp cumin seeds
· 1 tsp coriander / cilantro leaves, chopped
· 2 tsp lemon juice
· 1 tbsp ghee
· 1 stalk curry leaves
· Salt to taste

-Peel the plantain and chop them into pieces.
-Take sufficient amount of water in a pan and add 1 tsp. salt.
-Immediately transfer the plantain in salted water to prevent discoloring, and put the pan water to boil.
-While the plantains are boiling, add turmeric powder and cook until soft.
-Drain the water and let the plantains to cool.
-Heat ghee in a pan and add curry leaves and cumin seeds until fragrant, add the plantain pieces, fold and mix well.
-Transfer to a bowl, add lemon juice and chopped coriander / cilantro.

Sabudana Khichdi
(Sago / Tapioca Khichdi)
· 1 cup sabudana / tapioca (drained in water for about three hours)
· 2 medium sized potatoes, peeled, julienned and cut into ½ inch pieces
· 7-8 black peppercorns crushed
· ½ tsp. jeera
· 2 table spoon ghee
· ¼ cup spoon roasted (or fried) peanuts crushed
· 1 tsp. finely chopped coriander / cilantro for garnish
· Salt to taste.

-Heat ghee in a pan and add jeera to the heated ghee, until fragrant
-Add the cut potatoes and sauté them for 5 minutes
-Add the sabudana (make sure there is no water remaining, otherwise the khichdi will be soggy)
-Add peanuts, salt and crushed black peppercorns
-Mix well and sauté for additional 5 minutes so everything is evenly
warm / heated
-Garnish with chopped cilantro / coriander and serve hot
-(For additional flavor, you can squeeze some lemon juice as
garnish – NEVER cook lemon juice).

Pumpkin Curry
· 1 lb. pumpkin or butternut squash
· 2 tsp ghee
· ¼ tsp methi (fenugreek) seeds
· ¼ tsp. jeera (cumin) seeds
· ¼ tsp turmeric powder
· 6-8 crushed black pepper corns (optional)
· ½ tsp. sugar (optional)
· Salt to taste
· 1 tsp. chopped coriander / cilantro

-Peel (remove the hard skin) and cut the pumkin / squash to about 1
inch / bite size pieces.
-Heat ghee in a pan, when hot, add the methi and jeera seeds, sauté
until fragrant.
-Add the pumpkin / squash, salt, turmeric and (if using) sugar and
black peppercorns.
-Mix well, stir, cover and let it cook for 10 minutes at medium /
medium low heat, stirring every 2-3 minutes.
-When cooked, it would be soft and mushy.
-Garnish with chopped coriander / cilantro and serve hot.
-Best enjoyed with sighara / kuttu poori (next)

E. Breads / Side Dishes

Kuttu / Singhara Poori
(Pooris are a deep-fried Indian bread made of Water Chestnut or Buckwheat flour)

· 1 cup flour – either Singhara (water chestnut) or Kuttu (buck wheat)
· 1 tbsp. ghee
· ¼ tsp. roasted cumin powder
· ¼ cup finely chopped coriander / cilantro leaves
· ½ cup boiled and peeled potatoes
· 4 crushed black pepper corns (optional)
· Salt to taste
· Water for kneading
· More ghee for deep frying!!

-Mix all the ingredients thoroughly (except ghee for frying) in the Singhara/ Kuttu flour. (This flour is not like normal flour, so don’t add too much
-After mixing all the ingredients together and kneading with water into a
pliable dough, form round balls in your hand, one by one, adding scant
water as you knead each ball.
-Flatten ball into a poori, and deep fry until crisp and brown (about 1
minute each).

Navratri aloo parantha
(Paratha is a pan-friend Indian bread)
For the dough
· 1 ½ cups kuttu flour
· 1 tbsp. ghee
· salt to taste

For the filling
· 1 potato boiled and mashed
· 1 tbsp. coriander leaves finely chopped
· 6-8 crushed black pepper corns
· 1 tsp. ginger grated
· ¼ tsp. turmeric powder
· ½ tsp. cumin seeds
· salt to taste
· Ghee to shallow / pan-fry

-Mix all ingredients and knead into a soft, pliable dough
-Cover with a moist cloth, keep aside.
-For the filling – heat ghee in a heavy pan, add cumin seeds and ginger
till they sputter.
-Add mashed potatoes, coriander mix well.
-Divide dough and filling into equal parts, shape the dough into balls
pressing with the thumb in the center for the filling.
-Bring together all edges of round over filling, press lightly to close
-Dust lightly with kuttu flour and roll into a paratha
-On a heated skillet (tawa), roast the paratha on one side, drizzle some
ghee and flip to the other side and repeat.
-Serve hot with coconut chutney or pumpkin curry.

Navratri Raita
(Raita is a side dish)
· 1 potato, boiled, chopped
· 1 cucumber, chopped
· 4-5 water chestnuts (singhara), boiled, peeled & chopped
· 1 tsp. roasted and crushed peanuts
· 1 cup fresh plain yogurt
· 1 tbsp. coriander finely chopped
· 4-5 crushed black pepper corns
· ½ tsp. cumin seeds whole
· salt to taste
· sugar to taste
· 1 tsp. ghee

-Beat the yogurt, salt, sugar and black pepper corns in a bowl, add 2-3
tsp. water for smoothness and consistency.
-Add all prepared vegetables, peanuts, mix to blend well.
-Chill well till required.
-Heat ghee in tempering spoon and add cumin seeds, till they splutter.
-Pour sizzling tempering over raita.
-Garnish with chopped coriander.

Aloo ka Raita
(Potatoes Raita)
· ½ cup boiled and peeled potatoes, coarsely mashed
· 1 cup plain or low fat yogurt
· Salt to taste
· ½ tsp. sugar
· 2/3 crushed black pepper corns

-Mix sugar, salt, black pepper corns into yogurt.
-Add the boiled potatoes and fold well
-Cool for about ½ hour, serve.
F. Dessert

Saboodana Kheer
(Tapioca pudding. Kheer is a popular dessert, rice kheer / pudding is the most common of them all)

· 1 tbsp Sago granules
· 4 cups milk
· ¼ tsp cardamom powder
· ¾ cup sugar
· 1 cup water

-Wash sago granules, drain and leave aside for 10 minutes.
-Fluff / toss the sago when the moisture has been absorbed, this is
done to prevent them from sticking.
-Heat water, bring it to a boil and add sago, stirring constantly, let it
simmer for about 5 minutes.
-Add milk, sugar and cardamom (crush the seeds into a powder), let
it simmer, stirring frequently.
-Cook until sago is very soft, but not mushy, and the whole thing is
a very thick consistency.
-Best served hot — garnish with saffron string (optional).


Khajoor Kheer (Pudding made with Dates and Almonds)

Ingredients –

1. 8 -10 Medjool dates – pitted and finely chopped
2. 10-12 Almonds – coarsely ground
3. 2 cups Milk (whole)
4. 1-2 tsp. Ghee (or more)
5. ½ tsp. Cardamom powder
6. ¼ tsp. Nutmeg powder / grated
7. 1 tsp. Sugar (optional)
8. 1-2 Saffron strands (for garnishing) (optional)

Procedure –

1. Heat a thick bottomed pan, add ghee, when melted, add chopped dates and almonds and sauté for about 2-3 minutes.
2. Add milk and sugar (if using), turn the heat to medium, mix everything well and let it simmer, stirring in between, until the milk-dates-almond mixture thickens and reduces in volume from 2 cups to about one to one and half cups, this should take about 15-20 minutes.
3. Stir the cardamom and nutmeg powders and simmer for another 5 minutes, garnish with Saffron and enjoy warm.

(Sugar is optional, but it tastes better with some sugar and more ghee!)

Note – you can also make a Sweet Potato pudding following the same recipe, simply replace the chopped dates with 1 medium sized boiled, peeled and grated sweet potato. Also, coarsely ground / chopped walnuts and raisins may be added, while simmering

Sabudana / Tapioca Pudding

Ingredients –

1. 1 cup Sabudana / Tapioca
2. 2 cup Milk (whole)
3. 4 tsp. Sugar (or more, to taste)
4. 2 -3 tsp. crushed Cashew nut
5. 1 tsp. Raisin

Procedure –

1. Wash and drain the Sabudana / Tapioca, then soak it in milk for about 1 hour.
2. Add sugar to the milk and tapioca and simmer for about 15 minutes on medium-low heat.
3. Add cashews and raisins and simmer for another 10 minutes, until it has a sauce like consistency but not very thick.
4. Savor it warm.

Note – if you think the pudding is too thick, add a little milk to bring it to desired consistency.

Tandul / Samo (aka Rice for fasting, but it NOT rice)

Ingredients –

1. 1 cup Samo (available at Indian grocery stores, specially during Navratri)
2. 3-4 tsp. Ghee
3. ¼ tsp. Cumin seeds
4. 4 cup water
5. ½ tsp. Salt (more or less, to taste)
6. ½ cup or more roasted and crushed peanuts

Procedure –

1. In a heated pan, dry roast Samo on medium heat, stirring frequently, till its lightly pinkish (about 5 minutes), and set aside.
2. Dry roast or shallow fry (in 1 tsp. ghee), ½ cup peanuts, fry / roast for about 1-2 minutes, till they are golden and set them aside.
3. Heat the ghee in the pan, add cumin seeds, swirl till they are fragrant, about 5 seconds, then add roasted Samo and salt, mix well so that the Samo is coated with ghee.
4. Add water, cover and simmer for about 10 minutes or until the Samo is thoroughly cooked.
5. While the Samo is cooking, crush the roasted / fried peanuts.
6. Mix the coarsely grounded peanuts to the cooked Samo and enjoy it fresh and hot.
Roasted Peanuts (Make a variation by using almonds or cashews or a combination of them all)

Ingredients –

1. 1 cup raw peanuts (with or without the red skin)
2. salt to taste
3. ¼ tsp. roasted cumin powder
4. 5-6 crushed black pepper corns
5. 2 tsp. freshly chopped coriander / cilantro
6. ghee for frying

Process –

1. In a deep pan, heat the ghee.
2. Add the peanuts in batches and fry for less than 1 minute, they would be lightly golden (don’t overdo it otherwise they would be bitter).
3. Add salt, roasted cumin powder, black pepper corns, chopped cilantro, mix well, enjoy hot with chai!!

Cool green yogurt

Ingredients –

1. 1 bunch cilantro / coriander
2. 1 inch ginger
3. salt to taste
4. 4-6 crushed black pepper corns
5. 1 tsp. sugar
6. 1 cup plain yogurt (whole or low-fat)
7. 1 stalk of curry leaves
8. ¼ tsp. or less mustard seeds
9. a pinch of heeng (asafetida)
10. 2 tsp ghee

Process –

1. To make the chutney, put ingredients from 1- 5 in a blender and puree until very smooth.
2. Next whisk the yogurt to make it smooth, and add 2-3 spoons of the coriander chutney, mix well.
3. For the garnish – in a ladel, heat the ghee, add a pinch (no more than a pinch) heeng / asafetida and mustard seeds, let the seeds pop, then add curry leaves till they splutter.
4. Top the chutney mixed yogurt with garnish


This is one of the simplest recipes for getting rid of aama and regaining agni. If you find that you have made mistakes and the digestion is bad, take time off and make this only and rest. No sleeping during the day and having this for intake and the agni will return.


1 cup white rice (or rice flour) Rose Matta or Sona Masoori rices work well

5 – 6 cups water

tsp salt

1/2 tsp ghee

tsp grated ginger

tsp turmeric powder


Wash the rice vigorously in a bowl
Get a small pressure cooker and place it on heat, let it warm first on medium heat.
Add the ghee then other spices
When they are sizzling add the rice and mix it
Add the water

With the pressure cooker, let there be about 10 whistles and then turn off the heat and let set till the pressure releases completely.

This recipe can also be made with Ragi (finger millet) and other grains as well.




Arrow Root is another. Arrow root is good for excessive body heat and is very good for irregular bowels and diseases of the bowel. 4939_Arrowroot.jpg

Just for a trial to see how different it digests, try your normal oatmeal this way. You can also grind the grains and use them as flour this way.


If your not having massive aama or digestion problems, you can have this also with a little payar.

You will need a second pressure cooker


Take green gram in pressure cooker with 1 cup water and salt.
Pressure cook for 1 whistle and switch off the flame.
Once the pressure is released cook off the excess water.
In blender add coconut, garlic, cumin, green chili, turmeric and blend. The mixture will be coarse.
Add this the cooked green gram and mix well. Do not mash or blend.
Add curry leaves and mix well.


Try this mixture with your peya.


Real Yoga Will Not Wreck Your Body


Real Yoga Will Not Wreck Your Body
By Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati
January 24, 2012
The New York Times published an article on January 5, 2012 entitled “How Yoga Can
Wreck Your Body”. This article has since spread like wildfire throughout internet. I am
writing comments below to strongly refute much, if not most of what William J. Broad
(the author) has said. I have copied the original article here, and then inserted
comments within the body of that article. I have broken some of the original paragraphs
so that I can easily comment on individual sentences where appropriate. Other than
that, I have not changed Broad’s article in any way; it is exactly as I copied it from the
New York Times website. My comments are indented in a way that it should be clear
which parts are the original article (not indented) and which are my comments (indented
with italics).
After repeatedly running into this article I wrote to the author: “Amazing that everybody
seems to forget that the so-called ‘yoga’ that they are talking about is so far off from
traditional yoga that it is not worthy of being called yoga. Getting hurt from doing
gymnastics and physical fitness regimes is not uncommon at all; just ask any
chiropractor. Real yoga has to do with sitting for meditation and that is not a posture in
which one is likely to have the body wrecked. The main problem that needs to be dealt
with is to come home to what yoga is really about… It would be useful if you would
explore more authentic yoga instead of just going with the modern distortions.” While I
sincerely appreciate his courtesy in replying to my email, no direct response came
about my suggestion that he “explore more authentic yoga”.
While I admit to a degree of sarcasm in my comments about Broad’s article and the
current state of yoga in general, my hope is that this whole subject of how yoga may or
may not “wreck” the body will trigger a much more widespread public discussion about
yoga in general, both traditional yoga and the popular revisions which have turned yoga
into gymnastics or fitness. It appears that for recent decades most of the public
information has been about the physical. Maybe this article about how yoga can “wreck”
your body can be a way to at least somewhat bring attention back to the more traditional
and authentic meanings and practices of yoga. Real, authentic, or traditional Yoga is an
incredible practice, aspects of which are fitting and safe for all human beings. Yoga
appears to have diverged in two directions: either it is perceived as physical fitness or it
is seen as religion, while in actual fact it is neither, being instead a process of
introspection into and through the levels of attractions, aversions, fears, and false
identities in our minds so as to uncover the joyous depth of our own being.
~Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati
On a cold Saturday in early 2009, Glenn Black, a yoga teacher of nearly four decades,
whose devoted clientele includes a number of celebrities and prominent gurus, was
giving a master class at Sankalpah Yoga in Manhattan.
Page 1 of 16
Black is the teacher of “gurus”? Who are these “gurus” and what are the
qualifications of Black to be such a teacher of other “gurus”? Traditionally, the
word “guru” implies that one has attained some degree of enlightenment, Selfrealization.
Are these “gurus” referred to here new age, self-appointed gurus?
What are their traditions? Are their traditions authentic yoga lineages, or does
the use of the word “guru” here simply mean that they practiced new age yoga
with any of the numerous people who have done something like put their own
surname in front of the word “yoga” and call it a style of yoga?
Black is, in many ways, a classic yogi: he studied in Pune, India, at the institute founded
by the legendary B. K. S. Iyengar, and spent years in solitude and meditation.
“Classic” yoga? Where is the linkage to the “classic” yoga of the ancient sages
and rishis, which was about Self-realization, not gymnastics or physical fitness?
Is Mr. Iyengar the “guru” who appointed Mr. Black as being such an advanced
“guru” that he, himself is teacher to other “gurus”, as noted above, but not
named? What makes Mr. Iyengar a “guru”?
To answer that we only have to look at his own website, bksiyengar.com. The site
is titled as “the official website” of B.K.S. Iyengar where we find him referred to
as “Guruji”. His site also explains that “Guruji was a sincere and committed
practitioner. His own practice helped him to explore and achieve perfection in
yoga asanas.” Thus, his “perfection” (according to his own website) is in asanas,
physical postures, apparently not Self-realization.
It is widely known and takes minimal online research to find that Iyengar was a
student of Tirumalai Krishnamacharya, who has been referred to as “the father of
modern yoga”. However, Krishnamacharya is also credited with the revival of
hatha yoga. Krishnamacharya was born November 18, 1888. At best, this then is
the source of the tradition of which Mr. Iyengar is a “guru” and is a “hatha”
tradition. There was no such yoga or tradition on November 17, 1888 (the day
before Krishnamacharya was born) or any previous date.
Krishnamacharya and Iyengar may clearly have significant expertise in physical
or postural yoga, and possibly even in more authentic yoga, but this does not
mean they were focusing their teachings on the traditional yoga of the previous
several millenia. The significance of this here, in this article about yoga
“wrecking” the body, is that the background of Mr. Black and his predecessors
emphasizes physical body work, not traditional yoga as meditation and
contemplation for the realization of the Self, Atman, or Brahman.
He now lives in Rhinebeck, N.Y., and often teaches at the nearby Omega Institute, a
New Age emporium spread over nearly 200 acres of woods and gardens.
Page 2 of 16
The fact that Omega is acknowledged as a “new age” place immediately reveals
that Black’s interest is not in traditional yoga of the ancient sages, but is in one or
more of the many “new age” styles of gymnastic or fitness “yoga”.
He is known for his rigor and his down-to-earth style. But this was not why I sought him
out: Black, I’d been told, was the person to speak with if you wanted to know not about
the virtues of yoga but rather about the damage it could do.
The author has settled for some very limited perspectives on yoga. It appears that
his whole article is based on this one man, and from this, naturally concludes that
yoga is all about the physical body, and that yoga is, in turn, dangerous to the
body. By missing or ignoring the higher, deeper, more authentic meanings of yoga,
he can easily talk about people getting hurt or “wrecked” by yoga. If he had
sought out people better trained in traditional yoga he would have probably had
very different outcomes or conclusions. It is highly unlikely that any true yogi is
going to be hurt or physically “wrecked” by sitting quietly, introspecting through
meditation and contemplation, which are the true practices of yoga.
Many of his regular clients came to him for bodywork or rehabilitation following yoga
The author has just discovered from Mr. Black the true nature of his work with
“clients” (not with students of yoga). His “regular clients” came to him for
“bodywork” or “rehabilitation”. They did not apparently come to him for the
traditional goals of yoga, such as realization of the union (the meaning of
“yoga”) between atman and brahman, jivatman and paramatman, or shiva and
shakti, or purusha standing alone as distinct from prakriti.
This was the situation I found myself in. In my 30s, I had somehow managed to rupture
a disk in my lower back and found I could prevent bouts of pain with a selection of yoga
postures and abdominal exercises. Then, in 2007, while doing the extended-side-angle
pose, a posture hailed as a cure for many diseases, my back gave way. With it went my
belief, naïve in retrospect, that yoga was a source only of healing and never harm.
It is highly unlikely that he would have hurt himself through the practice of
classical yoga of meditation and contemplation. Clearly, he states that his
treatment of “pain” was doing “postures and abdominal exercises”, revealing his
personal view that the true nature of yoga is as a physical treatment for physical
Who in the thousands of years history of yoga first said that “the extended-sideangle
pose” is “hailed as a cure for many diseases”? Was it Patanjali, codifier of
yoga principles in the Yoga Sutras? Was it Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita? Was it
Yama of the Kathopanishad? Was it Vyasa? Was it Adi Shankaracharya in any of
his well known writings? Was it Gaudapada in the Karika? Was it Swami
Page 3 of 16
Svatmarama, codifier of hatha yoga in Hatha Yoga Pradikika? Or, was it some
modern, self-appointed “guru” who is famous only because of his gymnastic and
physical fitness expertise? If the latter, then was that man a physician, did he have
any other proper training in medical sciences, or was it just his opinion that this
posture was a cure all?
I also suggest that the reason for the author’s naïve belief is that he felt in the first
place that the goal of yoga is “healing”, which it is not. In fact, yoga has to do
with transcending all of the pairs of opposites such as “healing” versus
“harming”, realizing the consciousness which is independent of, and beyond
At Sankalpah Yoga, the room was packed; roughly half the students were said to be
teachers themselves. Black walked around the room, joking and talking. “Is this yoga?”
he asked as we sweated through a pose that seemed to demand superhuman
endurance. “It is if you’re paying attention.” His approach was almost free-form: he
made us hold poses for a long time but taught no inversions and few classical postures.
Throughout the class, he urged us to pay attention to the thresholds of pain. “I make it
as hard as possible,” he told the group. “It’s up to you to make it easy on yourself.” He
drove his point home with a cautionary tale. In India, he recalled, a yogi came to study
at Iyengar’s school and threw himself into a spinal twist. Black said he watched in
disbelief as three of the man’s ribs gave way — pop, pop, pop.
Black raises a most important question, “Is this yoga?” If it was not yoga, was
that only because the man broke three ribs, or was it not yoga because the
orientation of the practice was off in the first place?
Swami Satyananda Saraswati, founder of Bihar School of Yoga, Bihar, India,
describes the modern situation of Yoga quite well in the Introduction of the Hatha
Yoga Pradipika commentary by Swami Muktibodhananda Saraswati, where he
“In ancient times hatha Yoga was practiced for many years as a
preparation for higher states of consciousness. Now however, the real
purpose of this great science is being altogether forgotten. The hatha Yoga
practices which were designed by the rishis and sages of old, for the
evolution of mankind, are now being understood and utilized in a very
limited sense. Often we hear people say, ‘Oh, I don’t practice meditation, I
only practice physical Yoga, hatha Yoga.’ Now the time has come to
correct this view point. Hatha Yoga is a very important science for man
“The main objective of hatha Yoga is to create an absolute balance of the
interacting activities and processes of the physical body, mind and energy.
When this balance is created, the impulses generated give a call of
Page 4 of 16
awakening to the central force (sushumna nadi) which is responsible for
the evolution of human consciousness. If hatha Yoga is not used for this
purpose, its true objective is lost.”
After class, I asked Black about his approach to teaching yoga — the emphasis on
holding only a few simple poses, the absence of common inversions like headstands
and shoulder stands. He gave me the kind of answer you’d expect from any yoga
teacher: that awareness is more important than rushing through a series of postures just
to say you’d done them. But then he said something more radical. Black has come to
believe that “the vast majority of people” should give up yoga altogether. It’s simply too
likely to cause harm.
Give up yoga because it is “likely to cause harm”? This is absolutely ridiculous.
The thing to give up is all of the modern distortions of so-called “yoga” and the
thing to do instead is real yoga, provided one has the inclination towards the
authentic goals of yoga. If one has no longing, no calling in the depth of the heart
to know, to directly experience that inner most being, the still, silent, ever pure
center of consciousness, then one should definitely not do yoga. But, that longing
is the measure of doing or not doing, not a question of whether bending in some
“wrong” way is going to hurt you. That question arises only once you have taken
the bait of the promoters of the incorrect opinion that yoga is merely a physical
Not just students but celebrated teachers too, Black said, injure themselves in droves
because most have underlying physical weaknesses or problems that make serious
injury all but inevitable.
“Celebrated” teachers? Being “celebrated” may feed the ego, but that is not a
measure of progress in real yoga, whether a practitioner or a so-called
“teacher”. One more time, the author shows that he either knows little or nothing
about authentic, traditional yoga, or does know but chooses to ignore it. He
obviously has totally bought into the modern idea that yoga is a gymnastic or
physical fitness practice.
Instead of doing yoga, “they need to be doing a specific range of motions for
articulation, for organ condition,” he said, to strengthen weak parts of the body. “Yoga is
for people in good physical condition. Or it can be used therapeutically. It’s controversial
to say, but it really shouldn’t be used for a general class.”
Wrong! Yoga is for people who seek the direct experience of the eternal center of
consciousness, which is one and the same with the universal consciousness. To
say that “Yoga is for people in good physical condition” completely misses the
depth and breadth of yoga. With this line of reasoning, people in ill health should
avoid yoga practices such as breathing smoothly, ahimsa (non-harming),
Page 5 of 16
santosha (contentment), and vairagya (non-attachment), practices which might
actually help them.
Black seemingly reconciles the dangers of yoga with his own teaching of it by working
hard at knowing when a student “shouldn’t do something — the shoulder stand, the
headstand or putting any weight on the cervical vertebrae.” Though he studied with
Shmuel Tatz, a legendary Manhattan-based physical therapist who devised a method of
massage and alignment for actors and dancers, he acknowledges that he has no formal
training for determining which poses are good for a student and which may be
problematic. What he does have, he says, is “a ton of experience.”
Here we go again, citing the background of this yoga “guru”, now including
physical therapy and massage. It has become so popular to tag “yoga” with many
prefixes, we cannot be too far away from labeling massage therapy (an
independent, licensed profession) as “yoga massage” and physical therapy
(physiotherapy, a healthcare profession) as merely being branches of “yoga
“To come to New York and do a class with people who have many problems and say,
‘O.K., we’re going to do this sequence of poses today’ — it just doesn’t work.”
Finally, we have a point of agreement, one of the few, though for different reasons.
One view is that it “doesn’t work” because it is dangerous, and the other is that it
“doesn’t work” because it ignores the real goals of yoga, and therefore does not
lead to the fulfillment of those real goals.
According to Black, a number of factors have converged to heighten the risk of
practicing yoga. The biggest is the demographic shift in those who study it. Indian
practitioners of yoga typically squatted and sat cross-legged in daily life, and yoga
poses, or asanas, were an outgrowth of these postures. Now urbanites who sit in chairs
all day walk into a studio a couple of times a week and strain to twist themselves into
ever-more-difficult postures despite their lack of flexibility and other physical problems.
Yoga has been complete for a very long time, often said to be thousands of years
old, though now, according to the author, yoga is evolving into “ever-moredifficult
Many come to yoga as a gentle alternative to vigorous sports or for rehabilitation for
injuries. But yoga’s exploding popularity — the number of Americans doing yoga has
risen from about 4 million in 2001 to what some estimate to be as many as 20 million in
2011 — means that there is now an abundance of studios where many teachers lack
the deeper training necessary to recognize when students are headed toward injury.
There may be 20 million people doing something in the “name” of yoga, but that
does not mean that what they are doing actually “is” yoga. The word “yoga” has
been hijacked and has little or no meaning anymore. Authentic yoga is neither an
Page 6 of 16
“alternative” to “vigorous sports” nor an alternative to “rehabilitation for
injuries”. I know that it is being repetitive to say it, but the goal of yoga has to do
with realization of the union (the meaning of “yoga”) between atman and
brahman, jivatman and paramatman, or shiva and shakti, or purusha standing
alone as distinct from prakriti.
Georg Feurstein, a well known scholar and teacher, is quoted in a July/August
2003 article in the online LA Yoga Magazine. When asked, “How would you
describe Yoga in the US today?” he responded:
” It’s a mess. And you can quote me on that. Anything that comes to
America or the West in general, immediately gets individualized and
commercialized. There has always been great diversity in traditional Yoga,
and this diversity was based on the experience of masters. Today even
beginning teachers feel qualified to innovate and create their own
trademarked Yoga system.
“So, looking at the Yoga movement today, part of me feels very saddened
by it, but then I also see that it contains the seeds of something better.
Also, amazingly, Yoga can be beneficial even when it is reduced down to
posture practice. But people shortchange themselves when they strip Yoga
of its spiritual side.”
“Today many schools of yoga are just about pushing people,” Black said. “You can’t
believe what’s going on — teachers jumping on people, pushing and pulling and saying,
‘You should be able to do this by now.’ It has to do with their egos.”
Once again, we have a point of partial agreement, though not due to shared
reasons. Most of modern “yoga” has to do with feeding egos. Real yoga has to do
with attenuating the attractions, aversions, and fears associated with ego, so that
the pure consciousness (purusha, atman, shakti) can be experienced directly.
When yoga teachers come to him for bodywork after suffering major traumas, Black tells
them, “Don’t do yoga.”
It would be far better to tell them, “Don’t do modernized, gymnastic, physical
fitness ‘yoga’.” “If you want to do authentic, real yoga as meditation and
contemplation, please go to a real yogi to learn these practices that lead to peace,
happiness, and bliss, but do not put such stresses on your physical body.”
“They look at me like I’m crazy,” he goes on to say. “And I know if they continue, they
won’t be able to take it.” I asked him about the worst injuries he’d seen. He spoke of
well-known yoga teachers doing such basic poses as downward-facing dog, in which
the body forms an inverted V, so strenuously that they tore Achilles tendons. “It’s ego,”
he said. “The whole point of yoga is to get rid of ego.” He said he had seen some “pretty
Page 7 of 16
gruesome hips.” “One of the biggest teachers in America had zero movement in her hip
joints,” Black told me. “The sockets had become so degenerated that she had to have
hip replacements.” I asked if she still taught. “Oh, yeah,” Black replied. “There are other
yoga teachers that have such bad backs they have to lie down to teach. I’d be so
These are not, not, not yoga teachers. Wake up, everybody. What is happening in
the name of yoga is mostly not yoga. It is a case of telling a big enough lie often
enough that people will come to believe it.
Among devotees, from gurus to acolytes forever carrying their rolled-up mats, yoga is
described as a nearly miraculous agent of renewal and healing. They celebrate its
abilities to calm, cure, energize and strengthen. And much of this appears to be true:
yoga can lower your blood pressure, make chemicals that act as antidepressants, even
improve your sex life. But the yoga community long remained silent about its potential to
inflict blinding pain. Jagannath G. Gune, who helped revive yoga for the modern era,
made no allusion to injuries in his journal Yoga Mimansa or his 1931 book “Asanas.”
Indra Devi avoided the issue in her 1953 best seller “Forever Young, Forever Healthy,”
as did B. K. S. Iyengar in his seminal “Light on Yoga,” published in 1965. Reassurances
about yoga’s safety also make regular appearances in the how-to books of such yogis
as Swami Sivananda, K. Pattabhi Jois and Bikram Choudhury. “Real yoga is as safe as
mother’s milk,” declared Swami Gitananda, a guru who made 10 world tours and
founded ashrams on several continents.
More than supporting that yoga can “wreck” your body, Broad’s comments
support the idea that real yoga has been almost completely distorted in recent
decades. Interestingly, the quoted comment of Swami Gitananda may be right on
track, that “real” yoga is safe. The yoga that is of questionable safety is not the
traditional yoga of the sages of the distant past, but the innovations of the recent
hundred years or so, plus or minus a few decades.
B. K. S. Iyengar writes in his discussions on the Yoga Sutras that yoga is both the
means and the goal, and that yoga is samadhi and samadhi is yoga:
“… Through the discipline of Yoga, both actions and intelligence go
beyond these qualities [gunas] and the seer comes to experience his own
soul with crystal clarity, free from the relative attributes of nature and
actions. This state of purity is samadhi. Yoga is thus both the means and
the goal. Yoga is samadhi and samadhi is Yoga….”
“… Usually the mind is closer to the body and to the gross organs of action
and perception than to the soul. As asanas are refined they automatically
become meditative as the intelligence is made to penetrate towards the
core of being. Each asana has five functions to perform. These are
conative, cognitive, mental, intellectual and spiritual….”
Page 8 of 16
But a growing body of medical evidence supports Black’s contention that, for many
people, a number of commonly taught yoga poses are inherently risky. The first reports
of yoga injuries appeared decades ago, published in some of the world’s most
respected journals — among them, Neurology, The British Medical Journal and The
Journal of the American Medical Association. The problems ranged from relatively mild
injuries to permanent disabilities. In one case, a male college student, after more than a
year of doing yoga, decided to intensify his practice. He would sit upright on his heels in
a kneeling position known as vajrasana for hours a day, chanting for world peace. Soon
he was experiencing difficulty walking, running and climbing stairs.
Here we go again. Were these reports of “yoga injuries” about traditional yoga,
or the revised yoga? There is no suggestion given here that the yoga referred to is
anything other than the recently invented gymnastic yoga.
Doctors traced the problem to an unresponsive nerve, a peripheral branch of the sciatic,
which runs from the lower spine through the buttocks and down the legs. Sitting in
vajrasana deprived the branch that runs below the knee of oxygen, deadening the
nerve. Once the student gave up the pose, he improved rapidly. Clinicians recorded a
number of similar cases and the condition even got its own name: “yoga foot drop.”
Patanjali clearly states in the Yoga Sutras that the posture (for meditation) should
be steady and comfortable. The fact that this fellow hurt himself by forcing
himself beyond his comfortable capacity is not a condemnation for sitting in
meditation. It is not evidence of following the instructions, but is actually evidence
of NOT following the instructions.
More troubling reports followed. In 1972 a prominent Oxford neurophysiologist, W.
Ritchie Russell, published an article in The British Medical Journal arguing that, while
rare, some yoga postures threatened to cause strokes even in relatively young, healthy
people. Russell found that brain injuries arose not only from direct trauma to the head
but also from quick movements or excessive extensions of the neck, such as occur in
whiplash — or certain yoga poses. Normally, the neck can stretch backward 75
degrees, forward 40 degrees and sideways 45 degrees, and it can rotate on its axis
about 50 degrees. Yoga practitioners typically move the vertebrae much farther. An
intermediate student can easily turn his or her neck 90 degrees — nearly twice the
normal rotation.
You do not need to stretch your neck to such extremes to sit for introspection
through meditation and contemplation, the central-most practices of authentic
Pandit Rajmani Tigunait, head of the Himalayan Institute of the USA writes in an
article entitled Real Yoga that: “Yoga has become the health and fitness system of
choice. This is odd because it is the mind – not the body – that is the main target of
all genuine Yoga practices…. To regard Yoga primarily as a set of practices for
Page 9 of 16
increasing strength and flexibility while calming the nervous system is to mistake
the husk for the kernel.”
Hyperflexion of the neck was encouraged by experienced practitioners. Iyengar
emphasized that in cobra pose, the head should arch “as far back as possible” and
insisted that in the shoulder stand, in which the chin is tucked deep in the chest, the
trunk and head forming a right angle, “the body should be in one straight line,
perpendicular to the floor.” He called the pose, said to stimulate the thyroid, “one of the
greatest boons conferred on humanity by our ancient sages.”
These “hyperflexions” have nowhere been recommended in any of the traditional
texts and practices of yoga.
Extreme motions of the head and neck, Russell warned, could wound the vertebral
arteries, producing clots, swelling and constriction, and eventually wreak havoc in the
brain. The basilar artery, which arises from the union of the two vertebral arteries and
forms a wide conduit at the base of the brain, was of particular concern. It feeds such
structures as the pons (which plays a role in respiration), the cerebellum (which
coordinates the muscles), the occipital lobe of the outer brain (which turns eye impulses
into images) and the thalamus (which relays sensory messages to the outer brain).
Reductions in blood flow to the basilar artery are known to produce a variety of strokes.
These rarely affect language and conscious thinking (often said to be located in the
frontal cortex) but can severely damage the body’s core machinery and sometimes be
fatal. The majority of patients suffering such a stroke do recover most functions. But in
some cases headaches, imbalance, dizziness and difficulty in making fine movements
persist for years.
Russell also worried that when strokes hit yoga practitioners, doctors might fail to trace
their cause. The cerebral damage, he wrote, “may be delayed, perhaps to appear
during the night following, and this delay of some hours distracts attention from the
earlier precipitating factor.”
In 1973, a year after Russell’s paper was published, Willibald Nagler, a renowned
authority on spinal rehabilitation at Cornell University Medical College, published a
paper on a strange case. A healthy woman of 28 suffered a stroke while doing a yoga
position known as the wheel or upward bow, in which the practitioner lies on her back,
then lifts her body into a semicircular arc, balancing on hands and feet. An intermediate
stage often involves raising the trunk and resting the crown of the head on the floor.
While balanced on her head, her neck bent far backward, the woman “suddenly felt a
severe throbbing headache.” She had difficulty getting up, and when helped into a
standing position, was unable to walk without assistance. The woman was rushed to the
hospital. She had no sensation on the right side of her body; her left arm and leg
responded poorly to her commands. Her eyes kept glancing involuntarily to the left. And
the left side of her face showed a contracted pupil, a drooping upper eyelid and a rising
lower lid — a cluster of symptoms known as Horner’s syndrome. Nagler reported that
the woman also had a tendency to fall to the left.
Page 10 of 16
Her doctors found that the woman’s left vertebral artery, which runs between the first
two cervical vertebrae, had narrowed considerably and that the arteries feeding her
cerebellum had undergone severe displacement. Given the lack of advanced imaging
technologies at the time, an exploratory operation was conducted to get a clearer sense
of her injuries. The surgeons who opened her skull found that the left hemisphere of her
cerebellum suffered a major failure of blood supply that resulted in much dead tissue
and that the site was seeped in secondary hemorrhages.
The patient began an intensive program of rehabilitation. Two years later, she was able
to walk, Nagler reported, “with [a] broad-based gait.” But her left arm continued to
wander and her left eye continued to show Horner’s syndrome. Nagler concluded that
such injuries appeared to be rare but served as a warning about the hazards of “forceful
hyperextension of the neck.” He urged caution in recommending such postures,
particularly to individuals of middle age.
The experience of Nagler’s patient was not an isolated incident. A few years later, a 25-
year-old man was rushed to Northwestern Memorial Hospital, in Chicago, complaining
of blurred vision, difficulty swallowing and controlling the left side of his body. Steven H.
Hanus, a medical student at the time, became interested in the case and worked with
the chairman of the neurology department to determine the cause (he later published
the results with several colleagues). The patient had been in excellent health, practicing
yoga every morning for a year and a half. His routine included spinal twists in which he
rotated his head far to the left and far to the right. Then he would do a shoulder stand
with his neck “maximally flexed against the bare floor,” just as Iyengar had instructed,
remaining in the inversion for about five minutes. A series of bruises ran down the man’s
lower neck, which, the team wrote in The Archives of Neurology, “resulted from repeated
contact with the hard floor surface on which he did yoga exercises.” These were a sign
of neck trauma. Diagnostic tests revealed blockages of the left vertebral artery between
the c2 and c3 vertebrae; the blood vessel there had suffered “total or nearly complete
occlusion” — in other words, no blood could get through to the brain.
Two months after his attack, and after much physical therapy, the man was able to walk
with a cane. But, the team reported, he “continued to have pronounced difficulty
performing fine movements with his left hand.” Hanus and his colleagues concluded that
the young man’s condition represented a new kind of danger. Healthy individuals could
seriously damage their vertebral arteries, they warned, “by neck movements that
exceed physiological tolerance.” Yoga, they stressed, “should be considered as a
possible precipitating event.” In its report, the Northwestern team cited not only Nagler’s
account of his female patient but also Russell’s early warning. Concern about yoga’s
safety began to ripple through the medical establishment.
These cases may seem exceedingly rare, but surveys by the Consumer Product Safety
Commission showed that the number of emergency-room admissions related to yoga,
after years of slow increases, was rising quickly. They went from 13 in 2000 to 20 in
2001. Then they more than doubled to 46 in 2002. These surveys rely on sampling
rather than exhaustive reporting — they reveal trends rather than totals — but the spike
was nonetheless statistically significant. Only a fraction of the injured visit hospital
Page 11 of 16
emergency rooms. Many of those suffering from less serious yoga injuries go to family
doctors, chiropractors and various kinds of therapists.
It is no wonder that there are physical injuries. Yoga has been redefined as a
gymnastic or physical fitness regime, which it is not.
Paramahansa Yogananda, the well-known author of Autobiography of a Yogi,
responds to the question “What is Yoga?” in the text The Essence of SelfRealization:
“Yoga means union. Etymologically, it is connected to the English word,
yoke. Yoga means union with God, or, union of the little, ego-self with the
divine Self, the infinite Spirit. Most people in the West, and also many in
India, confuse Yoga with Hatha Yoga, the system of bodily postures.
But Yoga is primarily a spiritual discipline. I don’t mean to belittle the
Yoga postures. Hatha Yoga is a wonderful system. The body, moreover, is a
part of our human nature, and must be kept fit lest it obstruct our spiritual
efforts. Devotees, however, who are bent on finding God give less
importance to the Yoga postures. Nor is it strictly necessary that they
practice them. Hatha Yoga is the physical branch of Raja Yoga, the true
science of Yoga. Raja Yoga is a system of meditation techniques that help
to harmonize human consciousness with the divine consciousness.
Around this time, stories of yoga-induced injuries began to appear in the media. The
Times reported that health professionals found that the penetrating heat of Bikram yoga,
for example, could raise the risk of overstretching, muscle damage and torn cartilage.
One specialist noted that ligaments — the tough bands of fiber that connect bones or
cartilage at a joint — failed to regain their shape once stretched out, raising the risk of
strains, sprains and dislocations.
In 2009, a New York City team based at Columbia University’s College of Physicians
and Surgeons published an ambitious worldwide survey of yoga teachers, therapists
and doctors. The answers to the survey’s central question — What were the most
serious yoga-related injuries (disabling and/or of long duration) they had seen? —
revealed that the largest number of injuries (231) centered on the lower back. The other
main sites were, in declining order of prevalence: the shoulder (219), the knee (174)
and the neck (110). Then came stroke. The respondents noted four cases in which
yoga’s extreme bending and contortions resulted in some degree of brain damage. The
numbers weren’t alarming but the acknowledgment of risk — nearly four decades after
Russell first issued his warning — pointed to a decided shift in the perception of the
dangers yoga posed.
It is self evident that their results would be skewed in the way described above
solely because of the confused belief that yoga is a physical exercise program. If
they had prefaced their questions with descriptions of yoga as introspection
Page 12 of 16
through contemplation and meditation, it is highly unlikely that people would
have reported all these problems with lower back, shoulders, knees, necks, and
In recent years, reformers in the yoga community have begun to address the issue of
yoga-induced damage. In a 2003 article in Yoga Journal, Carol Krucoff — a yoga
instructor and therapist who works at the Integrative Medicine center at Duke University
in North Carolina — revealed her own struggles. She told of being filmed one day for
national television and after being urged to do more, lifting one foot, grabbing her big
toe and stretching her leg into the extended-hand-to-big-toe pose. As her leg
straightened, she felt a sickening pop in her hamstring. The next day, she could barely
walk. Krucoff needed physical therapy and a year of recovery before she could fully
extend her leg again. The editor of Yoga Journal, Kaitlin Quistgaard, described
reinjuring a torn rotator cuff in a yoga class. “I’ve experienced how yoga can heal,” she
wrote. “But I’ve also experienced how yoga can hurt — and I’ve heard the same from
plenty of other yogis.”
To have the editor of Yoga Journal talk like this shows how utterly widespread is
the misunderstanding of the true nature of yoga, or even worse, it may show the
intentional misrepresentation of yoga if its real meaning is known by these people.
It would have been much better (above) to say something like, “I’ve experienced
how physical postures can heal, but I’ve also experienced how physical postures
can hurt — and I’ve heard the same from plenty of other people who do physical
Swami Rama writes about the situation of traditional Yoga and modern Yoga in
his text, Path of Fire and Light:
“The majority of people view Yoga as a system of physical culture. Very
few understand that Yoga science is complete in itself, and deals
systematically with body, breath, mind, and spirit.
“When one understands that a human being is not only a physical being,
but a breathing being and a thinking being too, then his research does not
limit itself to the body and breath only.
“For him, gaining control over the mind and its modifications, and the
feelings and emotions, become more important than practicing a few
postures or breathing exercises. Meditation and contemplation alone can
help the aspirant in understanding, controlling, and directing the mind.”
In the opening paragraph of Lectures on Yoga, Swami Rama explains:
The word Yoga is much used and much misunderstood these days, for our
present age is one of faddism, and Yoga has often been reduced to the
Page 13 of 16
status of a fad. Many false and incomplete teachings have been
propagated in its name, it has been subject to commercial exploitation,
and one small aspect of Yoga is often taken to be all of Yoga. For instance,
many people in the West think it is a physical and beauty cult, while others
think it is a religion. All of this has obscured the real meaning of Yoga.
In the second volume of Path of Fire and Light, Swami Rama goes even further,
where he flatly declares:
“The word ‘Yoga’ has been vulgarized and does not mean anything now.”
One of the most vocal reformers is Roger Cole, an Iyengar teacher with degrees in
psychology from Stanford and the University of California, San Francisco. Cole has
written extensively for Yoga Journal and speaks on yoga safety to the American College
of Sports Medicine. In one column, Cole discussed the practice of reducing neck
bending in a shoulder stand by lifting the shoulders on a stack of folded blankets and
letting the head fall below it. The modification eases the angle between the head and
the torso, from 90 degrees to perhaps 110 degrees. Cole ticked off the dangers of doing
an unmodified shoulder stand: muscle strains, overstretched ligaments and cervical-disk
Yoga is NOT a “sport”, period. Saying that yoga is a sport reveals an extreme
ignorance about the true nature of yoga. If yoga had not become so totally
distorted, it would be absurd to even have to point out that yoga is not a sport,
and thus, has no place being included in the respectable field of Sports Medicine.
But modifications are not always the solution. Timothy McCall, a physician who is the
medical editor of Yoga Journal, called the headstand too dangerous for general yoga
classes. His warning was based partly on his own experience. He found that doing the
headstand led to thoracic outlet syndrome, a condition that arises from the compression
of nerves passing from the neck into the arms, causing tingling in his right hand as well
as sporadic numbness. McCall stopped doing the pose, and his symptoms went away.
Later, he noted that the inversion could produce other injuries, including degenerative
arthritis of the cervical spine and retinal tears (a result of the increased eye pressure
caused by the pose). “Unfortunately,” McCall concluded, “the negative effects of
headstand can be insidious.”
The mere fact that we consult with physicians about yoga tells us that we have an
odd understanding about yoga. If we are going to integrate yoga with a
profession, at least it would fit better with psychology or psychiatry, as yoga has
far more to do with the mind, its emotions and habits than it does to do with the
physical body and its ailments. Surely physicians can be of value in the postures
aspect of hatha yoga, but that is a minor part of yoga.
Page 14 of 16
David Frawley, an internationally recognized scholar and teacher, is quoted in
the Sep/Oct 2000 issue of Yoga Journal:
Yoga in the West “has only scratched the surface of the greater Yoga
tradition,” he says. “The Yoga community in the West is currently at a
crossroads. Its recent commercial success can be used to build the
foundation for a more profound teaching, aimed at changing the
consciousness of humanity. Or it can reduce Yoga to a mere business that
has lost connection with its spiritual heart. The choice that Yoga teachers
make today will determine this future.”
Swami Chidananda Saraswati, former head of the internationally known
Sivananda Ashram (Divine Life Society) in Rishikesh, India explains that:
“Yoga is not mere acrobatics. Some people suppose that Yoga is primarily
concerned with the manipulation of the body into various queer positions,
standing on the head, for instance, or twisting about the spine, or
assuming any of the numerous odd poses which are demonstrated in the
text-books on Yoga. These techniques are correctly employed in one
distinct type of Yoga practice, but they do not form an integral part of the
most essential type. Physical posture serve at best as an auxiliary, or a
minor form of Yoga.”
Almost a year after I first met Glenn Black at his master class in Manhattan, I received
an e-mail from him telling me that he had undergone spinal surgery. “It was a success,”
he wrote. “Recovery is slow and painful. Call if you like.”
The injury, Black said, had its origins in four decades of extreme backbends and twists.
He had developed spinal stenosis — a serious condition in which the openings between
vertebrae begin to narrow, compressing spinal nerves and causing excruciating pain.
Black said that he felt the tenderness start 20 years ago when he was coming out of
such poses as the plow and the shoulder stand. Two years ago, the pain became
extreme. One surgeon said that without treatment, he would eventually be unable to
walk. The surgery took five hours, fusing together several lumbar vertebrae. He would
eventually be fine but was under surgeon’s orders to reduce strain on his lower back.
His range of motion would never be the same.
Black is one of the most careful yoga practitioners I know. When I first spoke to him, he
said he had never injured himself doing yoga or, as far as he knew, been responsible for
harming any of his students. I asked him if his recent injury could have been congenital
or related to aging. No, he said. It was yoga. “You have to get a different perspective to
see if what you’re doing is going to eventually be bad for you.”
Black recently took that message to a conference at the Omega Institute, his feelings on
the subject deepened by his recent operation. But his warnings seemed to fall on deaf
ears. “I was a little more emphatic than usual,” he recalled. “My message was that
Page 15 of 16
‘Asana is not a panacea or a cure-all. In fact, if you do it with ego or obsession, you’ll
end up causing problems.’ A lot of people don’t like to hear that.”
I quite relate to this problem of having comments “fall on deaf ears”. I and others
I know have dealt with this for years and decades in relation to real yoga versus
gymnastic or fitness yoga. The audience that Black is talking about is the same
audience that does not listen to the voices of traditional yoga. Though he is
complaining that yoga is dangerous, the traditional voice is saying that what is
being done in the name of yoga is not actually yoga, and in one way or another is
calling for the cessation of the hijacking of the name of “yoga”.
Unfortunately the voice of traditional yoga now falls on two kinds of yoga people
with deaf ears: those who promote the physical yoga as being safe, and those who
say it is dangerous and should be stopped. Neither of these groups–each for their
own reasons–seem to have any interest in the traditional, authentic, or real yoga
of the masters. Black is right in pointing out that “A lot of people don’t like to
hear” this.
This article [“How Yoga Can Wreck Your Body”] is adapted from “The Science of Yoga: The
Risks and Rewards,” by William J. Broad, to be published next month [February 2012] by Simon
& Schuster. Broad is a senior science writer at The [New York] Times.

Difference in paradigm


Western views on life differ from Indian thought on the subject.

In India, the goal of life ‘used to be’ God. The person who has achieved realization of God is the most highly regarded. Kings, Queens, Prime Ministers, all bow down to such a person. In the West, people measure the success of a person’s life by their worldly achievements. The richest and most famous people are regarded most highly by the society and culture. This is a fundamental difference in attitude towards the goal of one’s life between the West and the East has often been very misunderstood and the East is judged from Western standards and paradigm.

Food intake

Diet plays an important role in the maintenance of good health and in the prevention and cure of the disease; the proper balanced food is the most important factor in the promotion of positive health.

Quantity of food taken should depend on the capacity of the stomach. One third of stomach should have solids, second third should have liquids and last third should be empty to facilitate biochemical and biomechanical action of stomach.

If food taken in the morning is digested by evening and food taken in the evening is digested by morning, it indicates that the correct amount of food has been consumed. Excess or inadequate food causes malnourishment while optimum quantity of food causes nourishment. Food ingested in proper quantity produces effects on all biological systems including sense organs, strength and complexion. Assessment of proper digestion and metabolism can be done as per given signs.

Positive mental status is important while ingesting food. The negative mental status while taking food can lead to improper digestion even if the food is in proper quantity.

The food that is heavy to digest, dry, cold, dehydrated, causing constipation or burning, unclean and incompatible causes amapradoshak vikara, such as visuchika, alasaka, and dandalasaka (indigestion, food poisoning, paralytic ileus).


Food taken in excessive quantities aggravates all doshas and produces symptoms characteristic of each of the vitiated dosha separately.

In addition to the quantity of food, untimely intake and the quality of food, i.e., intake of heavy, unctuous, cold, unclean and mutually contradictory food are responsible for the formation and vitiation of aama.

Wholesome food, even if taken in proper quantity does not get properly digested if the individual is afflicted with anxiety, fear, grief, envy, anger, greed etc. and other such emotional states.

These causative factors lead to formation of aamaAama is the undigested food material which remains inside body and produces disease.


Three parts

The consumer of the food should divide the total capacity of his stomach into three parts – a third of the portion of the space should be allocated to solid food articles, a third to liquid food substances and the remaining third should be left for the (movement of) vata, pitta and kapha. One who keeps this basic thumb-rule during dietary intake, does not get affected by any adverse effect arising out of improper amount of diet.


It is not possible to derive all the beneficial effects of any diet only on the basis of the quantity of food consumed because the other seven factors such as prakriti (nature of food, etc.) have their own individual role to play.


Signs after intake of proper quantity

Whether the amount of food to be consumed is appropriate or not is determined on the basis of the capacity of the stomach and its division into three parts. Any quantity of food to be consumed can be considered appropriate if it does not exert undue pressure on the abdomen, does not cause obstruction in the proper functioning of the heart, does not exert any pressure on the sides of the chest, does not leave a feeling of excessive heaviness in the abdomen, properly nourishes (satisfies) the sense organs, subsides hunger and thirst, after consuming which the person is able to perform activities such as standing, sitting, walking, exhaling, inhaling, laughing, and talking with ease, and is easy to digest when taken in the morning and evening hours. Food consumed in the appropriate quantity enhances strength, complexion, and nourishment of tissues.


Signs after intake of improper quantity 


Inappropriate quantity is of two types, deficient or excessive in quantity. The food taken in deficient quantity is said to be the cause of reduction in strength, complexion and nourishment of body tissues, non–satisfaction, altered peristalsis and misplacement of vayu, impairments in life-functions, body tissues, sexual stamina, and vitality, damage to the body, mind, intellect, and sense organs, inducing inauspiciousness and also making the person home to a variety of disorders of vata. One who eats solid foods in excess and also drinks beverages beyond satiation will have all the three doshas in his stomach vitiated simultaneously due to their getting compressed by all the excess food. Vitiated doshas in the undigested food mass get localized into a part of the stomach, which then either obstruct the movements in the abdomen or suddenly get eliminated through upper and lower channels of the alimentary tract. They produce distinct features in the person as follows:

Vata causes colic pain, distension of the abdomen, body ache, dryness of the mouth, fainting, giddiness, variability in digestive power, rigidity in flanks, back and waist and contraction (spasm) and hardening of vessels.
Pitta causes fever, diarrhoea, burning sensation inside body, thirst, intoxicated state, giddiness and delirium, and
Kapha causes vomiting, anorexia, indigestion, fever with cold, laziness and heaviness in the body


Other causative factors for aama 


The quantum of food is not the only cause of formation of ama (undigested and non-metabolized food) in the body but also the use of diet and drinks which are heavy to digest, and with properties like dry, cold, dehydrated, constipation causing, burning sensation causing, unclean, incompatible, and/or consumed untimely. Intake of food while the mind being afflicted with passion/desires, anger, greed, infatuation, envy, bashfulness, grief, conceit, excitement and fear are also the cause of formation of ama. Any wholesome food, even if taken in the right amount, does not get digested if the mental state of the person is riddled with anxiety, grief, fear, anger, or restless and irritable due to lack of sleep.


Two types of ama disorders


Two types of diseases caused by ama dosha, cholera and sluggish bowels.

The expulsion of ama dosha (undigested food) through both upper and lower passages of the gastrointestinal tract with the features already described above is cholera


Sluggish bowels

If a frail person having weak digestive power and excess of kapha in the body, habitually suppresses the urges of passing gas, urination and bowel movements and at the same time consumes solid, heavy, excessively dry, and cold, dehydrated foods in excessive quantities, his ingested food gets afflicted by vayu. Even exerting pressure does not push the undigested food out of the passage since it is obstructed by kapha, by excreta accumulated already, and also because of sluggishness caused by all these factors.
All the characteristic features of ama dosha, devoid of vomiting and diarrhoea, are manifested severely. The extremely vitiated doshas move towards oblique passages as the other passages are blocked by aggravated ama. This will sometimes cause the body to become rigid, like a wooden rod/staff. This incurable clinical condition is known as ‘dandaalasaka’. The ama dosha of an individual who regularly consumes incompatible diet, multiple heavy meals (in short intervals) and eats even before the previous meal is digested is called ama poisoning which is a clinical state of indigestion characterized by manifestation of toxic symptoms because of resemblance of manifested symptoms to that of poisoning. It is considered incurable because of its acute presentation and also because of its contradictory line of management.

Bathing: Snanam


Snanam – the basics

Bathing every day at least once is a necessary discipline of Vedic way of life. There are several baths taken in one day, not just one. It is used to clean the body and open the srotas. Bathing in the morning removes all the drowsiness, laziness, and refreshes the body. It soothes the mind and hence helps in concentration, meditation, studies, etc. Water has been referred as amrit or nectar and jivana, life giving, in the Vedas.

Apa Id Va U Bheshajirapo Amivacatanih | Apo Vishvasya Bheshajistastva Muncantu Kshetriyat ||

Water is a medicine in itself; it is an enemy of diseases. It has a potential to kill diseases used properly and just as everything in this world, as everything else if used incorrectly it creates disease.

Pavitram Vrashyamayushyam Shramaswedamalapaham | Sharira Balasandhanam Snanamojaskaram Param || -Charaka Samhita

The body is purified by bathing. Bathing enhances life span, eliminates fatigue, sweat and dirt. It augments the liveliness and force of the body.

Snanam Dahashramaharam Swedakandutrashapaham | Hrdyam Malaharam Shreshtham Sarvendriyavishodhanem || Tandrapapopashamanam Tushtidam Punsatva Vardhanam | Raktaprasadanam Capi Snanamagneshca Dipanam ||
– Sushruta Samhita

Bathing eliminates heat, fatigue, sweat, itching, and thirst. It cleans the sweat on the body, strengthens the heart and naturally cleans the sense organs. It removes the drowsiness and helps in re-charging the blood circulation and energy. Bathing is purifying, libidinal stimulant, increases longevity, removes fatigue, sweating and dirt which is why it is done after exercise. It also brings about strength in the body and is an aid par excellence for the enhancement of Ojas. It improves the appetite, removes itching, drowsiness, thirst, burning sensation, and sin. Snana is good for heart, purifying all organs, gives satisfaction, enhances virility, improves appetite, clears the blood.

Bathing should be done in early morning as it relieves all sins (whether or not you have beliefs in sin or not), destroys the Doshas of bad dreams, and is auspicious. It removes all morbid matters of the body, improves lustre, helps in beautification of body, brings pleasing or happiness to the body, increases the digestive fire. Rubbing the entire body with cloth soon after bathing improves lustre, removes itching and disorders of skin. Hot water should not be used for bathing above the collarbone as the heat has negative effects on the senses and on delicate skin. In general, bathing with comfortably cold water is best for healthy effects. It allays the excess heat of the body and plethora of other problems. Bathing should be started from the head. A bucket bath is the healthiest and a shower the least as it aggravates vata. In a bucket bath, at least three to four bathing cups full of water should be poured on the head in its straight and bent positions. Doing so helps release the heat of the head and the whole body. The other parts of the body should then be bathed in succession from top to bottom.

There are actually 7 different types of bathing explained. Mantra, Bhouma, Agneya, Vayavya, Divya, Varuna and Manasa. Bathing by mantra is called as Mantra Snana. Bhouma Snana is by smearing the whole body with the mud. Application of bhasma (Ash), burnt powder of cow dung or other ash is Agneya Snana. The most auspicious is called as Vayavya Snana which is with dust that arises while cow is walking. Divya Snana is bathing in sun rays or the glare of the sun while it is raining. Bathing in river water is called Varuna Snana and is considered very auspicious. Thinking about the sacred soul is called Manasa Snana.

Place of bathing is given. Snana daily in a river, sacred places, ponds, etc……

Ayurveda would have you use a paste of besan (chick pea flour), turmeric and some mustard oil, or just a paste of mung dahl flour or other suitable natural herbs rather than the soaps. In the modern world we use soap. Soap takes the natural oils out of the skin. This makes very little sense when really thought about. Much like shampooing our hair strips the natural oil out of the hair then we try to replace it with a conditioner.

The body should be clothed only after it has dried completely. Absolutely do not bathe after having food or when having fever, or weakness due to dysentery, etc. Proper sponge bath could be taken while suffering from minor cold and/or some disease of ears or eyes. Also do not bath the head in the evening or go to sleep with a wet head. There are more contraindications of bathing as well. Everything is based in an individual’s situation based off the original comprehension of the knowledge.

Bathing with cold water relieves bleeding diseases where hot water increases strength and decreases Vata and Kapha Doshas. Hot water to the body below the clavicle level increases strength whereas to head decreases the strength of hairs and eyes and senses. Hot water bath to head causes harmful effect to eyes and senses all the time. Bathing is contraindicated in diseases of facial palsy, diarrhea, distension of abdomen, colds and rhinitis, indigestion and when there is aama, immediately after taking food, when there is fever, earache, Vata aggravation, anorexia or tastelessness or lack of appetite, eye oral and ear diseases.

Bathing in very cold water and in cold seasons aggravates Vata and Kapha while bathing in very cold water in hot season causes aggravation of Rakta and Pitta. A person should not bath when he had enough food, diseased, or at midnight, while clothed (but should be lightly clothed) and while in unknown ponds (Not like this is even a thought in the modern world). One should not see his own image in water (meaning the water should be flowing).



So here is the challenge, for two months take only this bucket bath. You’ll save $$$ on your water bill and be amazed at how much water we waste.

And here is how…….

Get a bucket, a five gallon one will work. Get a two or three cup measuring cup preferably plastic as well. A large plastic cup can work just as well. You can get a very small stool or something maybe plastic that is only a foot off the floor that you can sit on while bathing. Put both of them in your tub or shower.

  • Before eating in the AM, fill the bucket with cool water that is slightly uncomfortable, specially in the season it is that I am writing this post in. Pitta is aggravated.
  • Use the cup to pour (slowly) a couple fills of water over your head slowly first
    at this point use your shampoo and soap on your head and body, soap up or use chana/besan powder as explained above as a scrub your whole body. You can use the flour in your hair as well, just be sure you have made a thin paste of it by adding water to it before hand
  • Continue to use the cup and slowly pour the water while rinsing the body
  • After you are done, use a rough towel to dry off, not a soft fluffy one

Notice the difference in this routine and its effects afterwards and in the following duration you try this.

Comparatively, a shower is aggravating. Most people do not feel, bottom line, we are mainly numb. Using hot water on the head or above the collarbones will deaden the senses as well as create diseases of the senses and head.

Notice what you can and comment back here after observing a week or so of this.


Subtle channels importance

The body consists of numerous levels of subtlety and all Tantric traditions agree that a subtle body is composed of subtle channels (nadis) and winds (prana), which circulate in the subtle channels. Furthermore they agree on the existence of three principal subtle channels, two ancillary ones which crisscross around a central channel. The subtle winds course through the two ancillary channels but in most people the subtle wind cannot enter the central channel because the two ancillary ones form knots at the points where they crisscross it. As long as the subtle winds cannot enter the central one, one experiences the duality of ordinary reality. By certain methods one learns to untie these ‘knots’ thereby opening the central channel. When the subtle winds course through the central channel, the dichotomy of conditioned and unconditioned disappears.

Yoga, Prana, Breathing, and Why hot Yoga is not Yoga.

Yoga measures the span of life not by the number of years but by the number of breaths. You can take in a certain amount of Prana from the atmospheric air along with each breath. Vital capacity is the capacity shown by the largest quantity of air a man can inhale after the deepest possible exhalation. Of course this is going to be different for every being as per their individual health and many other factors too vast to write about in this post. i.e. nervous system, manas, perception of life, posture, etc etc etc

Sankhyabhih patidtishto deergha-sukshmah.”

Pranayama is regarded lengthy or subtle according to its three components, the external, the internal and the steady; the retention processes are modified by the regulations of space, time and number.
Yoga Sutras—Chap. II, Sa. 50


The speed of breathing and life span of various creatures is as follows:

Rabbit- breath 38- age 8 years

Pigeon- breath 37- age 8 years

Dog- breath 28- age 13 years

Goat- breath 24- age 14 years

Horse- breath 18- age 50 years

Man- breath 12- age 100 years

Elephant- breath 11- age 100 years

Snake- breath 7- age 120 years

Tortoise- breath 4- age 150 years


Today we breathe 15-16 times per minute. In ancient times, as per textual references, man breathed 11-12 times per minute. Human lifespan has decreased. Medical texts (5000 years ago) in Sanskrit have the lifespan at 100 years. Think about this.

Heat of the body is increased when the speed of breath increases. This in turn decreases ones life span as per vedic understanding of a human life. Animals who pant like a dog i.e. whose panting is faster, have shorter lives. A point to note here is that panting and increase of heat are directly related. When man gets fever his breathing rate increases. The opposite applies as well wherein if our breath is fast our body gets heated more. This increase of heat and fast breath shortens the life span.

Our lungs, on average, contract and relax around 25,000 times per minute. Every breath has about 500 cc+/- air because people breathe erroneously and unconsciously as well as most peoples posture and perception in the Western world is into the future with stress which tends to hyperextend the knees, cut off grounding, downward flow of apana (udvartana), and stop the diaphragm from contracting/functioning. This in turn makes the scalenes (a secondary muscle of breath in the neck) become the primary muscle to breath. This stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and creates a flight breath or a breath that only uses a minimal breath focused on a quick inhale and short tidal volume. An ideal body of “real” health, 1200cc+/-  of air should be used. People inhale only less than half the amount. It makes the body weak and causes illnesses in time.

Sidebar: Coincidentally, stillness and silence increases the tidal volume. Not exercise, not movement. What is health?

Taking deep breath means that the lungs get time to relax a bit and uses this little time to purify our blood. The heart also does not get over worked and will attain sound health. This is the cheapest secret of good health and best bet for a long life. Breathe. Slow and long. You can eat all the alkaline foods in the world and you will not change a thing with a short stressed out breath that causes acidity.


So now lets address another piece.

“Mitaharam vina yastu yogarambham tu karayet, Nanaroga bhavettasya kinchid yogo na sidhyati”
Without observing proper moderation of diet, if one takes to the Yoga practices, he cannot obtain any benefit but gets various diseases” (Gheranda Samhita 5.16).


So my question is, what do you think moderation in diet means? Because it is not from a knowledge base of Western nutrition since the western culture and its science did not even exist back then and if you think the Western nutritional and dietary science is more advanced your absolutely kidding yourself. Do you think doing a raw diet, paleoveda, an alkalizing diet, or following anything that is popular out there in the pop yoga/spiritual culture of the West is actually a yogic diet that is being referred to in the quote above? Since those diets in that pop culture are not by guidelines or knowledge/understanding of Ayurveda or what is known in India as a yogic diet (one example is the intake of only one meal a day), what do you think the outcome will be?


SRI PARASHARA SMRITHI ADHYAYA-1 SRI GANESHAYA NAMAHA Now to begin. — On the top of the snowy hill, in the hermitage of the Devadaru grove, the Rishis of yore inter- rogated Vyasa, who was seated, rapt in thought. 2. Expound, O son of Satyavati ! the law, which is for the good of mankind, in the present Kali age; and the practice of purification, such as it ought to be. 3. Hearing the above saying of the Rishis, (he) the adept 4n the Veda and the Smriti, and exceedingly bright, like a a kindled fire or the sun, who was attended by his pupils, said in reply, 4. ” I have not the knowledge of the whole of the truth. How can I venture to expound the law ? It is our father who should be asked.” Thus said Vyasa, the son. 5. 6, 7. Then all those Rishis, desirous to obtain correct law, proceeded, under the lead of the Rishi Vyasa, to the Badrika hermitage, (a spot) crowded with various trees, beautified by flowers and fruits, diversified by rivers and rills, ornamented with holy bathing-places, resonant with the voice of beasts and birds, studded with temples, and enlivened by the dance and music of Yakshas, Gandharvas and Siddas 8 & 9. There, Vyasa, accompanied by the Rishis, by putting together both his palms and by cir cum ambulation, obeisances and laudatory speeches, paid respects to Parasara, the son of Shakti, seated at his ease in the midst of an assemblage of Rishis, and surrounded by a host of Munis of the highest rank. 10. Now, with a gladdened heart, the great Muni Parasara, pre-eminent among Munis, thus spoke without rising from his seat, ” Tell(me) about your safe arrival.” 11 to 15. Vyasa having said ” (All are) well,” thus interrogated him : ” If thou art aware of my reverence (for thee), or from affection, O thou affectionate to persons revering thee ! expound the law to me, for I am, father, an object of kindness to thee. The rules of law expounded by Manu have been heard by me, and those by Vasishtha and by Kasyapa, and by Garga and by Gautama and by Usanas ; the laws of Atri and Vishnu and Samvarta and Daksha and Angira and Shatatapa and Harita and Yajnavalkya, and Katyayana and Prachetas and Apastamba ; and the laws of Shankha and Likhita, 16. ” All these (laws) have been heard (by me as they were) expounded by thee ; they embody the sense of the veda ; (they) have not been forgotten by me. (They are) the laws for the four ages, the Krita, the Treta, and the rest, forming parts of this Manvantara. 17. ” All laws arose in the Krita age ; all have vanished in the Kali age. Expound a part of the rules of conduct fit for the four castes, such as are common (to all). 18 & 19. ” Likewise, thou proficient in the nature of law, expound in detail, both in its manifest and in its recondite forms, the law to be followed by those among all the four castes who are skilled in the knowledge of law.” At the end of the words of Vyasa, Parasara the chief of Munis, in detail expounds the law (as) settled, both in the manifest and in the recondite forms. ” Listen, my son, and let the Munis also hear.” 20. ” In each Kalpa (the deities) Brahma and “Vishnu and Shiva, and the expounders of the Veda, the Smrithis invariably perish, and are born again. 21. ” The author of the Veda there is none ; (he) the four- faced (God), at each succeeding revolution of a Kalpa, re- calls to mind the Veda ; and so does Manu remember the law (at each succeeding revolution of a Kalpa). 22. ” In conformity to the character of the age, the rules of law (suitable) for men differ from age to age. The rules for the Krita differ from the Treta rules ; the Dvapara laws are not identical with the Kali rules. 23. ” Self-mortification is the rule in the Krita age ; knowledge is said (to be the same) in the Treta ; in the Dvapara, (they) say sacrifice (to the gods to be) the sole (rule) ; and charity alone in the Kali age. 24. ” For the Krita are suited the laws of Manu ; for the Treta, those by Gautama (are) prescribed ; for the Dvapara those by Shank and Likhita ; for the Kali, those by Parasara are prescribed. 25. ” In the Krita, one should quit a country itself ; one should quit a village in the Treta ; in the Dvapara (one should shun) only the particular family ; but in the Kali, one should shun the perpetrator alone (of an offence). 26. ” In the Krita sin is incurred by one who converses (with a sinner) ; in the Treta by one who touches (the sinful man) ; in the Dvapara by taking the sinner’s food ; in the Kali by a (sinful) act (alone). 27. ” A curse in the Krita takes effect the moment it is littered ; in the Treta (it does so) in ten days’ time ; in the Dvapara, in the course of a single month ; in the Kali, how- ever, it takes a year. 28. *’ In the Krita (the donor himself) comes up to (the donee) and makes the gift ; in each succeeding Treta age, (the donee) is invited and the gift is made ; in the Dvapara, the gift is made to one who asks for it ; in the Kali, how- ever, gifts are made in exchange for service done. 29. ” Excellent is the gift, made on coming to the donee’s side ; the gift after invitation is of the middling kind ; gift to a suitor is of a low character ; but gift for service (rendered) is fruitless. 30 & 31. “Religion has been overthrown by irreligion ; and truth indeed by that which is false ; kings have been overpowered by thieves ; males have been subdued by females ; the worship of fire is dying out ; respect to superiors is ceasing to be seen ; and maidens are becoming mothers : this is what invariably happens in the age of Kali. 32. ” Life in the Krita has its seat in the bones ; in the Treta it has its seat in the flesh ; in the Dvapara the blood is the seat of life ; in the Kali, however, life is dependent upon food and the like. 33. ” Special are the rules of conduct for each cyclical age ; and the regenerate castes are guided by the rules that govern the age ; no censure (therefore) can attach to them ; for the regenerates conform to the spirit of the age.” 34. The saints have explained what other capabilities are special for each particular age. And the expiation pre- scribed by Parasara too is practiced (in actual life). 35. ” I shall this very day bring to my remembrance the whole of the same, und shall propound it to you. Let the leaders of the saints (literally the bull-like saints) listen to the approved law, which should be followed by a society observing the rule of castes.”” 36. Holy is the work composed by Parasara; it leads . to well-being and destroys sins ; properly construed, it settles the duties of the Brahman caste, and establishes the religion of all the rest. 37. A blameless life, that fosters righteousness, is what is proper for all the four castes. Righteousness turns its back to those whose bodies are defiled by a blamable life. 38. A Brahman, who is given to observe the six duties of his caste, who worships the deities and hospitably receives the guests ; whose meals consist of what remains after (daily) offerings made (on the fire), has never to suffer from misery or want. 39. Ablution and prayer, inaudible recitation (of sacred words), burnt- offerings, the worship of gods, hospitality to guests unexpectedly come, and offerings made in the name of the Visvadevam, — these are the six duties to be performed every day, 40. When a Brahman has performed the duty of offering to the Visvadevam, if an unexpected guest arrives, — be he a favourite, be he an object of hate, be he a dunce, be he a learned man — he is the very bridge for crossing over to the seats of bliss. 41. He should be considered as a true unexpected guest, who has come over from afar, fatigued in body, after the performance of the rite for the Visvadevam ; — one arrived prior thereto is not an unexpected guest. 42. Never should one belonging to the selfsame village be accepted as an unexpected guest. His name atithi (lit., having no date fixed) arises from the fact of his having arrived unexpectedly. 43. To an unexpected guest arrived at the house, one should address words of welcome ; and he should be honor ed with the offer of a seat, and of water for washing his feet. 44. The householder should gladden the guest by showing him respect, by the offer of food accompanied with pleasant words ;”^ and by following him (for some little distance), when he departs (from the house of the host). 45. Where a guest goes back from a person’s house, ‘ — his hope of a welcome unfulfilled, — the forefathers of the householder do not eat, during the period of ten years and five. 46. Where a guest is disappointed in his hopes — useless are the burnt-offerings made by the host, although he may burn a thousand loads of wood and a hundred jars of ghee. 47. The seed should be sown on excellent soil ; wealth should be bestowed on a worthy recipient ; for what is sown on excellent soil, — what is bestowed on a worthy recipient — is never lost, 48. (A guest) should not be asked his family or his clan ; [Lit., his gotra] he should not be questioned as to learning or knowledge. [But the host] should take him to be a god himself ; for, in him are united all the gods. 49. Fresh is a Brahman who lives a strictly religious life ; and similarly fresh is an unexpected guest ; (and also) he who delights in a constant study of the Veda ; these three are fresh from day to day. [By ‘fresh’ seems to be meant that ‘ one never should weary of them ; these three should be always acceptable and welcome’.] 50. At the hour of the offering for the Visvadevam, if a religious mendicant arrives at the house — one should take a portion from the intended offering to the visvadevas, — should give it as alms, and as a parting gift. [Lit. should dismiss the mendicant, having given the alms.] 51. The religious mendicant, and the religious student, these two are the lords of the food that has been cooked. Giving them no food, and eating himself, one should observe (as a penance) the lunar fast. * Lit. with pleasant enquiries, I. e., whether any more food would be welcome to the guest, and so forth. [The ‘lunar fast,’ called the * Chandrayana,’ consists in the re- duction of a mouthful every succeeding day, till on the day of the full moon the meal is reduced to a single mouthful.] 52. To the mendicant and the student, one should give three alms in all ; then he may give at his option as much as his wealth permits. 53. He should pour water on the mendicant’s palm ; then he should place the alms upon his hand ; and water again. The alms so given equal the Meru in bulk ; the water is comparable to the ocean itself. [The meaning is : Such alms are as efficacious in point of religious merit as if he had given a quantity equal in bulk to the mountain Meru, — the golden mountain on the top of which is situated Indra’s heaven.] 54. If an unexpected guest has got an umbrella and a horse ; he should be welcomed without hesitation ; (for by doing so) the householder goes to the place of Indra, where he mounts on elephants and enjoys riches. 55. If a fault be committed in performing the rite for the Visvadevam, the fault is repaired by (proper hospitality to) a religious mendicant ; if a fault, however, be committed with regard to that hospitality, it is not repaired by the rite for the Visvadevam. 56. The regenerate men who eat their meals, not having performed the rite for the Visvadevam, are born as crows ; their food by no means should be partaken.    57. Those despicable members of the regenerate caste, who eat their meals, not having performed the rite for the Visvadevam — they all should be taken as abortive beings and they fall into an impure hell.  58. Those who do not perform the rite for the Visvadevam, or the rite of hospitably receiving guests, — they all are destined to go to hell, and in the next existence are born as crows.   59. To eat one’s meals with his head wrapped round, or with his face towards the south, or with his hand on his left foot, or while he is standing up — is to imitate the manners of the Rakshasa class of beings.    60.The king must punish the village where brahmanas take alms without doing austerities and vedic study as it is a theft.    61. A king of the Kshatriya caste should arm himself,and have his troops ; should protect his people ; should overcome the forces of a hostile king ; and rule the State in the way prescribed by law.  62.Whether it be a robber, or a Chandala (the lowest of all the castes), or an enemy, or a parricide, — any one arrived at the time of the rite for the Visvadevam, is to be welcom- ed as a guest, who is like a bridge for crossing over to the seats of bliss.   63. To invest money on interest, to be a jeweller, to tend cattle, tillage and trade, — these are declared as occupations for the Vaisya caste,   64. The highest virtue for a Shoodra is to serve the members of the regenerate castes. Fruitless for him is everything else that he may do.  65. Salt, honey and oil, curded milk, whey, and milk all these are not polluted by the touch of persons of the Shoodra caste.Shoodra may sell these to all the castes.  66.By selling Wine and meat,by consuming prohibited foods,cohabiting with prostitutes a shoodra falls from his caste.   67. By drinking the milk of a tawny cow, by cohabiting with a woman of the Brahman caste, by discussing the sense of the words of the Veda,a Shoodra becomes a Chandala (Lowest sect)   Here ends the First Chapter of Parasara. SECOND CHAPTER DUTIES OF HOUSEHOLDER: 1. 2. Now, I shall explain, conformably to what Parasara formerly propounded, the law relating to the duties and observances prescribed for a householder, in the age of Kali ; also the rules of conduct, which, being common to all, are suited to the four castes and stages of life, so far as they are able to follow. A Brahman who regularly performs the six ceremonies, may also betake himself to agriculture. [The six ceremonies have been enumerated in ch. I., S’loka 39. Madhava says that the causal form ‘ karayet,’ in connection with the practice of agriculture allowed in the Kali to the priestly class, has a special meaning : — he says that a Brahmana must employ plough- men of the lower caste in carrying on his agricultural operations ; he is not permitted himself to hold the plough.] 3. An ox that is hungry, or thirsty, or fatigued, should not be harnessed (to a plough) . A bull wanting in a limb, or diseased, or impotent, should not, by a Brahman, be made to work. 4. An able-bodied bull, free from disease, well-fed and hearty, and not impotent, should be made to work for half the day. Then should one give the bull a wash. 5. Then the Brahman should perform the ceremony of inaudibly reciting the sacred word, the worship of gods, the offering on the fire ; and likewise should he practice the study of the sacred works. Thereafter should he feed one or two or three or four religious mendicants of the Brahman caste. [The religious mendicants, called the ‘ Snatakas ‘ in the original, are said by Madhava to be of nine classes.] 6. With the paddy cultivated by himself, or acquired from a field cultivated on his behalf, he should offer the five sacrifices (enjoined in the works on Smriti) ; and should likewise be engaged in celebrating the sacrificial rites, such as the Veda prescribes. [The five sacrifices are mentioned by Manu in eh. 3, sl. 70.] 7. Sesum seeds, or milk, or honey, or butter, should never be sold ; they may be bartered for equal quantities of paddy. The sale of grass or wood, or the like, is, for a Brahman, a similar means of living. 8. What sin a fisherman incurs in the course of one full year, — the same is incurred by the driver of a plough- share made of iron in the course of a single day. 9. A hunter who makes his living by killing beasts ; one who lives by ensnaring them ; a fisherman and a fowler ; as also an agriculturist who makes no gifts (of paddy) :-— all these five incur the same identical sin. 10. By cutting trees, by rending the earth, and by Destroying insects and worms, what sin is incurred by a tiller of the soil is removed by the sacrifice on the threshing- floor. [The sacrifice on the threshing floor consists of gifts of paddy at that place.] 11. He who refrains from making gifts to Brahmans, when he stands at the foot of the heaped-up paddy, is a thief ; he is the most wicked of all possible sinners ; he should be proclaimed as a Brahman-killer. 12. By making a gift of one-sixth part to the sovereign of the land, one twenty-first for the sake of the gods, and one-thirtieth to the Brahman caste, one is freed from all sins. 13. A Kshatriya, likewise, may practice tillage, honoring the gods and the Brahman caste. A 24. For those who died in the course of doing service Vaisya or Shoodra should always take to agriculture, practice arts, and follow trade. 14. Abandoning the service of the regenerate castes, the Shoodras who betake to improper occupations become short-lived beings, and undoubtedly go to hell. 15. This is the eternal rule of life for all the four castes. Here ends the Second Chapter of the Institutes of Parasara. END OF SECOND CHAPTER THIRD CHAPTER. Impurity caused by birth and death: 1. Now I shall speak of the term of impurity resulting on the occurrence of a birth, or a death. Brahmans in three days become pure again, when a relative has died, or has been born. 2. A Kshatriya recovers purity in twelve days ; a Vaisya, when fifteen days have passed ; a Shoodra, after the lapse of a month ; this is conformable to what Parasara has said. 3. So far as the performance of worship is concerned, a Brahman’s corporeal frame is (always) held in purity. In the case of pollution by a birth, it is allowable to touch the body of a Brahman who has been polluted by such a cause. [Madhava says that the word * worship,’ upasana in the original, is meant for ‘ the daily prayers and the burnt-offerings.’ The whole text means that a relative’s birth or death does not so far ill effect a Brahman with impurity- as to unfit him for performing his daily worship ; and on the birth of a relative to a Brahman, he does not become impure to the extent of being unfit to be touched.] 4. On the occasion of a birth, a Brahman recovers purity in ten days ; a Kshatriya does so in twelve days ; a vaishya at the expiry of fifteen days ; and the purification of a Shoodra takes a month. [Madhava says that this rule applies to the case where a Sapinda has been born ; while the rule of three days applies where a Sama- nodaka, a more distant relative than a Sapinda, has been born.] 5. A Brahman who has studied the Veda, and likewise keeps the sacred household fire, is restored to purity in a single day ; he who has the knowledge of the Veda alone will recover purity in three days ; while he who is without either the Veda or the fire, will remain impure till ten days are over. 6. A Brahman who has never received the purificatory rites prescribed from the day of birth, who neglects to perform the threefold daily prayers(sandhya), who is a Brahman in name alone, — must observe ten days of impurity on account of a birth. 7. If the relatives are sprang from the same progenitor, (but of a higher caste), and from a mother of an inferior caste, the above rule of impurity should be followed by them, when either a birth or a death has taken place. [In translating this shloka, I have followed Madhava ; but the text of the Rishi is not in its obvious and natural sense capable of that interpretation.] 8. The aforesaid impurity extends as far as three ances- tors. With the fourth terminates the Sapinda relationship ; and so with the fifth born in the same family, (and with the rest). 9. If the common ancestor be the fourth in ascent, then the impurity is for ten days ; in the fifth generation, six nights constitute the period thereof ; in the sixth, the purity comes back when four days have passed ; but in the seventh, in three days’ time. 10. If the death has happened by fall from a precipice, or in a country other than the native land, or if it be an infant which has died, or an anchorite who had renounced the world, — then the relatives are purified in the course of that very day. 11. If information arrives that a person of the same family has died in a country other than his native land, — then the rule of three days or of one day does not obtain ; then the relatives are purified by bathing themselves on that very day. 12. For infants whose teeth had yet to grow, and for such as had an abortive birth, no cremation is ordained, nor any term of impurity, nor libation of water. 13. If the child should perish, while yet in the womb, or should be miscarried, — then the woman has an impurity of as many days, as would be equal to the number of months the child had been in the womb. 14. An abortion taking place before four months are past, is to be called only an ‘ oozing ‘ of the womb (miscarriage) it is named a ‘ fall ‘ (or abortion) when happening in the fifth month, or in the sixth ; thereafter it is called a parturition. And then for the period of ten days should the impurity last. 15. If an infant has died after teething, or if he has died before the growth of his teeth, but after the performance of tonsure upon him, — then for him crema- tion is prescribed, and his relatives are impure for full three nights. 16. From birth till the commencement of teething, im- purity ceases on the very day of death ; up to tonsure, impurity lasts for a single night ; it lasts three nights until the investiture with the sacred thread ; thenceforward, the term of impurity is full ten nights. 17. A person in his pupilage, and those in whose house offerings are regularly made on the fire ; these are not affected with impurity for birth, provided they refrain from coming into contact. 20. A person observing a religious vow, a person purified by being engaged in some sacrificial rite, one of a re- generate caste who has set up a sacred fire in his house, and a person whose services are in requisition by the king — these, and a sovereign, have no impurity on account of birth. 18. Nothing but contact can cause to a Brahman an impure state, — whether it be on account of a birth or a death. To one refraining from all contact, there is no impurity, either for birth or for death. Artists and artisans, physicians, barbers, slaves, male or female, kings, and Brahmans who lead a sancti- fied religious life, — all these are purified without a moment’s delay. A person observing a religious vow, a person purified by being engaged in some sacrificial rite, one of a re- generate caste who has set up a sacred fire in his house, and a person whose services are in requisition by the king — these, and a sovereign, have no impurity on account of birth. 21. A person, who is about to be engaged in a battle, or who has made preparations for making a gift, or who is in distress, or a Brahman who has been invited to partake a religious feast — these become pure then and there ; — so it has been ordained by the saints, — -as pure as if they had observed the full and prescribed term (of purification). 22. If a householder, on the occasion of a birth, abso- lutely refrains from all contact, — then the mother becomes pure in ten days, while a plunge in the water will render the father pure. 23. Impurity on the ground of death affects all relatives in the same way ; but that for birth affects only the father and the mother; that on the ground of birth affects only the mother ; the father becomes pure by washing himself. [Madhava explains this text as follows : — So far as incompetency to perforin religious rites is concerned, all kinsfolk, whether parents or others, are affected in the same way, if a death occurs. But unfit, ness for being touched is anothter effect of impurity. This is confined solely to the parents, when there is a birth. Again, the mother remains unfit for being touched till the tenth day, while the father remains so till he takes a wash.] A brahmana is impure if he touches his wife who gives birth to a child eventhough he may be well versed with the six angas of the veda. 25. These two are destined to reach the very highest of all regions, having penetrated through the solar orb ; — namely, a mendicant who has practised Yoga, and a soldier who has been killed, fighting with his face towards the foes. Objects are pure eventhough if impurity raises due to birth in marriage or yagyas.They are considered pure. For those who died in the course of doing service to the Brahman caste, or while rescuing women, or cows being carried away by force, or in battles, — the impurity lasts only for a single night. 25. These two are destined to reach the very highest of all regions, having penetrated through the solar orb ; — namely, a mendicant who has practised Yoga, and a soldier who has been killed, fighting with his face towards the foes. 26. Wherever a hero is killed, being surrounded by a number of foes, he reaches regions of undying bliss, — pro- vided he utters no cowardly words. The sun trembles from his place on seeing a brahmana who has taken sanyasa.This sanyasi pierces the solar orb and reaches the ultimate position of brahman. 27. He who comes forward to protect, when the fighting forces have been routed and are running away on all sides —wins the fruits of a well-performed sacrificial yagya rite. Celestial damsels seize for themselves, and take delight with the hero, whose body is wounded or cut by arrows, clubs, or maces. Thousands of celestial damsels, rush forward in a hurry towards a hero killed in battle, each proclaiming, * He is my lord, he is mine.’ The regions which Brahman aspirants after heavenly bliss reach by performing many sacrificial rites, and by austerities of various forms, — the same seats of bliss are attained in an instant’s time by valorous men, who meet their death while blamelessly fighting on a field of battle. If victorious, wealth is won ; if death results, beauti- ful women fall to his share ; since this corporeal frame is liable to perish in an instant’s time, why should we be shy of meeting death on a field of battle ? If blood oozes out from the forehead,’while fighting, and enters the mouth — that is on a par with a drink of the soma juice, for a fight is a religious rite properly performed : so it has been represented by the saints. Those excellent Brahmans, who carry the corpse of a friendless Brahman, gain, at every step they take, one by one, all the objects for which a sacrifice is performed. Blessed is their deed. No evil happens to them ; nor do they incur a sin. By plunging in water, they then and there are freed from impurity. For (the impurity caused by) carrying to the cremation ground and cremating the corpse of a superior Brahman who has departed this life, without a relative or a friend at his side, — one becomes pure by practising a single Pranayama. [According to Manu, to repeat the Gayatri thrice, while balding I the breath, is called a pranayama.] For voluntarily following a corpse, whether it be that of an agnate or not, — washing with the clothing on, touching the fire, and eating clarified butter, — these are the means of purifying one’s self. Where a Brahman from ignorance follows the corpse of one who belongs to the military caste, he becomes im- pure for a single night, and purifies himself by eating the fivefold products of a cow. [These are, milk, curd, clarified butter, cow’s urine and cowdung.] If a Brahman, from ignorance, follows the corpse of a person of the Vaisya caste, he should observe impurity for full two nights, and should then practice six Pranayamas. If a Brahman, with a feeble knowledge of law, should follow a corpse of the Shoodra caste, while the same is being carried to the burning-ground, he shall become impure for full three nights. When the period of three nights is complete, he should repair to a river that falls into the sea ; there a hun- dred Pranayamas are to be practised by him ; hereafter he eats clarified butter, and restores him to purity again. When the Shoodras have finished all the obsequial rites, and have come to the water’s side, then they may be follow- ed by persons of the regenerate caste. This law has pre- vailed from ancient times. [Madhava says that the meaning is not ‘coming to the water’s side ‘ — but * when they have ceased to offer libations of water. ‘] End of third chapter of Parasara. CHAPTER IV. VARIOUS KINDS OF EXPIATION RITES: 1. Whether from excessive pride, excessive wrath, or from affection, or from fear, should a man or a woman hang one’s self, — then this is the destiny that awaits him or her. 2. He or she sinks into a region utterly dark, and filled to the brink with pus and blood ; that torment is suffered for sixty thousand years. 3. For such a being there should be no impurity, no libation of water, no cremation, nor any shedding of tears. 4. Those who carry the corpse or set it on fire, or cut the rope wherewith the person hanged himself or herself, must purify themselves by a Taptakrichchhra ; so has Prajapati declared the law to be. [Taptakrichchhra is a sort of penance; the person observing it must live on clarified butter, milk, and hot water, three days each ; and must inhale hot air for three days.] 5 and 6. The Brahmans who touch the corpse of a per- son killed by cows or bulls, or of one who hanged himself, or of one whose death was caused by a person of the Brahman caste; and those who carry the corpse, or set fire to it; or those other persons who follow the corpse ; and also those who cut down the rope ; all should purify themselves by a Taptakrichchhra ; and then a number of Brahmans should be fed by them. By way of a gratuity they should give to a Brahman, a cow accompanied by a bull able to draw a cart. Hot water should be drunk for three days , hot milk for three ; hot ghee for three ; and air should be the sole subsistence for the next three days. Seven palas (a pala = 4 tolas) is the quantity of water to be drunk ; three palas that of the milk to be drunk ; a single ‘ pala is the measure of the ghee. This rule governs the penance Taptakfichchhra If a Brahman associates with persons degraded by sin, but has been forced to do so against his wish, for five, or ten, or full twelve days ; or for half a month, or a month ; or for a couple of months ; or for half a year, or for one complete year ; at the expiration of the term he becomes degraded as they. He should fast three days, if the association has ended in the first fortnight ; if in the second, the penance should be a Krichchhra ; (a sort of penance extending over twelve continuous days, and consisting in partial or absolute fasts) ; if in the third fortnight, the penance should be a Santapana-krichchhra ; if in the fourth fortnight, the penance is a fast for full ten days ; if in the fifth fortnight, the fast must be for full twelve days; if in the sixth fortnight, a single Chandrayana is the penance; if in the seventh, a double Chandrayana; if in the eighth, he should, for the sake of purity, observe a Krichchhra extending over full six months. As many gold coins must the gratuity be, as there are fortnights in the period the association lasts. [A gratuity,dakshina, is the money gifted to a Brahmana, without which no religious observance has efficacy.] To be purified observe krichhra for six months.Atleast in order of a paksha(15 days) with gift of gold. If a woman meets not her lord, on the day that her monthly courses stop, — she after death goes to hell, — and becomes a widow in repeated births. If the husband meets not his wife on the day that her monthly courses cease, and she be near at hand, he incurs the awful sin of having killed a foetus. There is not the slightest doubt herein. If a woman despises her husband, because he being either poor, or diseased, or a dunce, — she, after death, is born a bitch, or a sow, again and again. If a woman, during her husband’s life, observes a religious vow which involves a fast,that woman thereby shortens her husband’s life, and after death goes to hell. If a woman performs a religious rite, without taking her husband’s consent, it is the Rakshasas who appropriate the whole of that religious rite. This is in conformity to what Manu has said. If a woman does harm to her kinsmen and friends, or if she causes herself to miscarry, no one should hold con- verse with her. What sin is incurred in killing a Brahman, abortion causes a sin twice as great ; there is no atonement for that sin. The abandonment of such a woman has been ordained by law. He who sets his face against righteousness, is but a Chandala by his acts. He gains nothing by being a mendicant, or by worshipping the household fire. If seeds be carried either by a stream or by wind unto the soil of a person’s field, and a crop is yielded by the field so sown, the crop will belong to the owner of the soil, not to the person who owned the seeds. Similar thereto are the two descriptions of bastard sons, both begotten on another’s wife ; they pass by the names of Kunda and Golaka. The bastard is a Kunda, if the woman’s husband lives ; it is a Golaka if begotten after his death. A son is either an aurasa (son of the body) ; or a kshetraja (an offspring of one’s wife by a kinsman or person duly appointed to procreate issue to the husband) ; or a datta ; (that is, obtained by gifts) ; or a kritima, (I. e., a son made). If either the father or the mother gives, the same is called a given son. An elder brother remaining unmarried while a younger marries, and that same younger brother himself who mar- ries before his elder brother, and the woman who becomes the wife of such a younger brother, together with the person who gives away the bride, and the priest who offi- ciates at the marriage, — all these are doomed to hell. A double Krichchhra is the penance ordained for the said elder brother, a single Krichchhra for the bride herself. He who gave away the bride must perform a Krichchhra and an Atikrichchhra ; while the priest must observe the Chan- drayana rite. If the elder brother be a hunchback, a dwarf, a eunuch, an idiot, or hoarse of voice, (probably the word * gadgada ‘ here means ‘ a person of an indistinct utterance,’ like the dumb), or blind from birth, or deaf, or dumb, there is no sin in the younger’s marrying first. If the elder be his paternal uncle’s son, or the son of a co-wife of the mother, or the son of another’s wife- then the younger has no sin if he disregards him, either in marriage, or in setting up the agnihotra fire. [For the younger brother to set up his household fire before the elder is a sin ; the setting up of a household fire is in general succeeded by marriage.] Where the elder brother is alive, but hasn’t set up agnihotra fire, the younger may do so, being permitted by him. This is in conformity to what Shank has said. When her husband is missing, or is dead, or has renounced the world, or is impotent, or has been degraded by sin, — on any of the said five calamities befalling a woman, law has ordained another husband for her. If a woman has led a continent life, after her lord departed this life, she wins a region of bliss after her death, like to the well-known male observers of a celebate life. If a woman follows her departed lord, by burning herself on the same funeral pile, she will dwell in heaven for as many years as there are hairs on the human frame, — which reach the number of three crores and a half. 31. As a snake-catcher seizes a venomous serpent by force, and from within its hole lifts it up ; so does a wife deliver her lord from the torments of hell, and then rejoices [in heaven] with him. FIFTH CHAPTER. EXPIATIONS 1. If a superior Brahman is bitten by a wolf, or by a dog, or a jackal, or the like, he should wash himself, and should inaudibly recite the Gayatri verse, the holy mother of the vedic hymns. 2. A person bitten by a dog is pure again, if he washes himself with water touched with the horns of a cow, or at the confluence of two big rivers, or if he pays a visit to the sea. 3. Should a Brahman sanctified by a knowledge of the veda, by learning and regular observance of religious rites, happen to be bitten by a dog, he washes himself with water touched with gold, then drinks ghee, and becomes pure. 4. If a person happens to receive the bite of a dog, while in course of performing a religious rite, he should fast for full three nights, should swallow ghee, and drink some water touched with the kusa grass, and should then perform the remaining part of the religious rite. 5. If a twice born, whether he leads a strictly re- ligious life or not, is bitten by a dog, let a number of Brah- mans be saluted by him, who render him pure by casting their eyes on him. 6. If a part of the body be smelt, or licked by a dog, or scratched with the nails of the beast, — to wash it with water and to singe it with fire, — are the two courses pre- scribed by law. 7. If a Brahman woman be bitten by a dog, or a jackal, or a wolf, — the rising stars and planets should be looked at by her, whereby she becomes immediately pure. 8. If it be a dark fortnight, and the moon at no moment comes to sight, she should gaze at that part of the heavens, where the moon is known to be travelling at the time. 9. If a superior Brahman be bitten by a dog, and there is no other Brahman in the village, he should circumambulate a bull and bathe ; thereby he becomes immediately pure. 10 — 14. If a Brahman, who performs agnihotra, be killed by a Chandala, or a SVapaka,or by cattle, or by Brahmans, or if he has committed suicide by poison, his dead body should be burnt by another Brahman, with lowkikagni,(i.e., not the sacred household fire) without reciting the holy mantras. If the body be touched, or carried or burnt, by any person connected by blood with him, — the penance of Prajapatya should thereafter be observed by that person, with the permission of other Brahmans. Then the Brahman should take out and wash with milk the calcined bones ; and then with his own holy fire, while reciting the hymn proper for his tribe, separately burn the same once again. If a Brahman, who had his sacred fire, should depart this life by the fiat of fate while dwelling in a foreign country, and his sacred fire yet subsists in his house, hear, most excellent Saints, the sacred regulation relating to his cremation rite. 15 — 18. Let the hide of a black antelope be spread ; let the figure of a man be made with kusa grass ; let seven hundred leaves be gathered with their footstalks intact ; let forty of these be placed on the head of the figure ; ten upon the throat ; one hundred on the two arms ; and ten upon the fingers ; one hundred on the hip ; two hundred on the belly ; eight on the two testicles ; five on the male organ ; twenty- one on the two thighs ; two hundred on the knees and the legs ; and six on the toes of the feet. Let the sacrificial vessels be then arranged. 19 — 21.The vessel shamya should be placed on the male organ, and the wood for generating the frictional fire(arani) on the two testicles ; the vessel juhu on the right hand ; the vessel upabhrit on the left hand ; the mortar on his back, as also the pestle ; the stone slab on the chest ; rice, ghee and sesamum seed upon the mouth ; the water vessel upon his ear ; the vessel for holding the ghee on his eyes. A piece of gold should be placed on his ear, eyes, mouth and nose. 22 — 23. At the spot one should bring together all the requisites for a burnt sacrifice ; and should make an offering with the recitation of the hymn, which begins with the words — ‘ asau svargaya lokaya lokaya, svaha.’ This offering should be made either by a son, or by a brother, or by any kinsman of the deceased. The observances are the same as followed when a burnt sacrifice is performed. This ought to be done by persons learned in law. 24. When the observances conform to what has been said above, the dead man undoubtedly reaches the abode of the supreme Being(brahma loka). And the Brahmans who burn him are destined to attain the highest bliss. 25, But if they rely upon their own understanding, and are led to adopt a different course, they are sure to shorten their lives, and cast themselves into an impure hell. End of fifth chapter. SIXTH CHAPTER EXPIATION FOR KILLING ANIMALS: 1. Now I am going fully to explain the expiation neces- sary for killing animals, such as Parasara explained it before, and is detailed in full in Manu’s work. 2. If a heron (krauncha), a crane, a goose, a ruddy goose, a cock, a web-footed animal, or a sarabha, be killed purity is restored in a single day, 3. The killer of a heron, a tittibha, a parrot, a pigeon, a snake, or a crocodile, attains purity by fasting in the day- time and eating at night. 4. The killer of a wolf, a crow, a dove, a hill maina, or a quail, purifies himself by plunging in water, and performing a single pranayama, both at the rising and the setting of the sun. [The word in the original is ‘ vrika ‘, which ordinarily means ‘ a wolf.’ Madhava says that it here means * a species of bird.’] 5. Let the killer of a vulture, a hawk, a rabbit, or an owl, live, to purify himself, on uncooked food for an entire day, and on air for three meal times. 6. Let the killer of a valguli, a tittihha, a black-bird, a wag-tail, a Idvikd, or the red-winged bird, purify himself by eating at night. [In these verses, the same animal is mentioned more than once ; Madhava says that different sub-species are intended thereby.] 7. Let the killer of a klirandava, a chakora, the tawny bird, an osprey, a sky-lark, or the like, purify himself by worshipping Shiva. 8. And the expiation for killing a bherunda, a blue jay, a bhasa, a dove, a partridge, in fact all sorts of birds, is a fast for an entire day. 9. For killing a mouse, a cat, a snake, a monster snake, or the dundubha snake, a number of Brahmans should be fed with krisara, (Khichri, — rice, ghee and peas or sesamum cooked together,) and the gratuity should be an iron rod. 10. A man purifies himself from the sin of j killing a porpoise, a lizard, a snake, a tortoise, or a porcupine, by living on egg-fruit for an entire day. 11. The killer of a wolf, a jackal, a bear, or a hyena, purifies himself by living on air for full three days, and giving a Brahman a prastha of sesamum seed. [A prastha consists of 48 double handfuls.] 12. The expiation for killing an elephant, a horse, a buffalo, or a camel, is a fast for an entire day, and plunging in water for three times, — at sunrise, sunset and noon. 13. A man expiates the sin of killing an antelope, a monkey, a lion, a leopard, or a tiger, by a three nights’ fast, and by gratifying a number of Brahmans with food. 14. Let the killer of a stag, a rohita, a boar, a sheep, or a goat, fast for an entire day, and break the fast with some such food as has not been produced by the tillage of land. 15. And so for killing any fourfooted beast, or any animal that roves in the wood, there should be a fast for an entire day, while inaudibly reciting that special hymn, which relates to the god of fire. 16. If a woman, an artist, or a mechanic, be killed, two prajapatyas is the penance prescribed, and the gratuity is a bull and ten cows. 17. Should one kill an innocent member of the military caste, or a similar Vaisya, he should expiate it by a double atikrichchhra, and a gratuity of twenty heads of cattle, 18. For killing a Vaishya who lives a Shoodra’s life, or a Brdhman who perpetrates forbidden acts, the penance pre- scribed is the lunar fast, with a gratuity of thirty head of cattle. 19. If a Brahman should ever happen to kill any person of the Chandala caste, let him perform a Krichchhra praja- patya; and give a gratuity of two cows. 20. If a person belonging to the Chandala caste, should happen to be killed by one of the Kshatriya tribe, or by a Vaisya, or by a Shoodra, the slayer becomes pure by half a krichchhra. 21. If a thief, a Svapaka, or a Chandala, comes to be killed by one of the Brahmin caste, the murderer may purify himself by fasting for an entire day, and by tasting the five articles derived from a cow. 22. If a Brahman speaks to one of the Svapaka caste, or to a person of the Chandala tribe, he should speak to a member of the Brahman caste, and once recite the Gayatri verse. 23. For sleeping together with many of the Chandala caste, let a Brahman fast for full three nights. If he treads a path that a Chandala has trodden, his sin is removed by a remembrance of the Gayatri verse 24. On seeing a Chandala, let him look at the sun without a moment’s delay. For touching a Chandala, let him bathe with his clothing on. 25. If a Brahman drinks water from a tank excavated by a Chandala, and if it be done without knowledge, he will be pure by omitting one meal ; else it is necessary to fast for a day. 26. For drinking water raised from a well, into which a Chandala’s pot has been dipped, purity may be restored by drinking for three nights cow’s urine in which half-ripe barley has been blended. 27. If a Brahman drinks water contained in a Chandala’s jar, provided he throws it up then and there, he will have to observe the prajiipatya penance. 28. But if he fails to throw the water up, and if it is assimilated into his body, let the penance prescribed be not prajapatya but krichchhra santapana. 29. A Brahman in the above case should perform a santapana; a member of the next inferior caste has to per- form a prajapatya ; the penance for a Vaisya is half of the same ; while for the Shoodra a quarter penance is pre- scribed. 30 — 31. If a Brahman, a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, or a Shoodra, should by inadvertence drink water, or curd, or milk con- tained in the vessel of the lowest castes ; — then the rege- narrates are purified by Brahmakoorcha and a fast ; a Shoodra by a fast and by making gifts, so far as his ability extends. [Madhava cites a verse mentioning the following seven as the ‘ lowest castes ‘, or ‘ antyaja ‘, as they are called : — the washerman, the worker in leather, the actor, the Varuda (probably the betel- grower), the fisherman, the Meda, and the Bheel.] 32. When a Brahman through ignorance chances to eat any food that belongs to one of the Chandala caste, he should purify himself by living on half-ripe barley and cow’s urine for ten nights. 33. The barley should be steeped in the cow’s urine, and one mouthful thereof should be taken day by day ; for ten days he must live a blameless life ; this is the penance pre- scribed for him. 34. If a Chandala stays in a person’s house, while his caste is not known to anybody there, — then, when his caste comes to be known, the Brahmans, when waited upon, should show a favour by prescribing the penance. 35. Brahmans well-versed in the rules of law and thoroughly conversant with all the Vedas, should propound rules which have emanated from the mouths of saints, and rescue the sinking sinner from his sin. 36. He and his servants, all should eat milk, unripe barley, cow’s urine, curd and ghee ; and there- should be a plunge in water at the three conjunctions, (sunrise, sunset and noon). 37. He is to eat the mixture of barley and urine with curd for three successive days ; for three days again with the ghee ; and with the milk he eats it three days ; for full three days with each of the above-named things. 38. He must not eat it with a feeling of disgust, or as if it were the remains of another’s meal, or as if it were polluted from a contact with worms. Of curd or milk, three palas are taken ; and of the ghee, only a single pala. [A pala = 4i or 8 tolas.] 39. Copper or bell-metal vessels become purified, by rubbing with ashes ; washing in water makes all clothing clean ; an earthen pot is clean by abandonment. 40. Then the safflower, the molasses, cotton, oil, ghee, and all the paddy, [in the house] should be deposited at the door, and then the house should be set on fire. [The above expiations are intended as a purification, when a Chandala has lived unknown in the house.] 41. Having done all this, he should thereafter gratify the Brahmans with food ; and the gratuity prescribed to be given them is thirty cows,and a single bull. 42. The ground itself is rendered pure, by being plas- tered anew, by digging up, by offerings made on the fire, or by the recitation of the sacred words ; it loses its pollu- tion also by the Brahmans having rested their feet upon it. 43. In case of association for a month or half a month, with persons belonging to the Chandala caste, purity returns by living on cow’s urine, wherewith unripe barley is mixed, during the period of half a month 44 — 45. If a washerwoman, or a woman of the caste that works in leather, or of the hunter, or of the fowler caste, or of that works in bamboo, should live unknown in the house of one who belongs to any of the four chief castes ; — then, when the fact is known, the process for purification is half of what has been described above ; the house, however, need not be burnt ; but the rest of the foregoing ceremony must necessarily be performed 46. If a Chandala should enter the inside of any one’s house, he must be turned out from the abode, and all the earthen vessels should be thrown away. 47. But an earthen vessel filled with an oily substance need not be thrown away. The house should be washed with cow-dung and water, mixed together. 48. When there is a wound or a sore on a Brahman’s body, and there is a secretion of pus and blood, and worms have been generated there, — if it be asked, what should the penance be ? 49. A person who has been bitten by worms, should for three days wash himself with cow- dung and with the urine of the cow, and with curd and milk, and with ghee ; he should swallow the same ; he would thus become pure. 50. A Kshatriya too, should become pure, by making a gift of five mashas of gold. For a Vaisya, the prescribed penance is, — the gratuity of a cow, and likewise a fast. 51 — 54. For the S’lidras, however, no fast is ordained in the case ; a Shoodra is pure by the making of a gift. When the Brahmans, who are the divinities of the earth, utter the words, — * all has been rightly performed ‘ — the same should be accepted with an obeisance and bending of the head ; for in the said utterance from a Brahman’s mouth are gathered the fruits of an agnishtoma rite. The defects in the performance of any religious rite, whether recitation, or austerities, or the performance of a sacrificial rite — are all removed, if the Brahmans signify the approval thereof. If the sinner be ill, or in distress, or fatigued, or in times of I scarcity or civil commotion, — the fast, the austerities and ! offerings are vicariously performed by employing a Brahman. Or the Brahmans in a body, may, out of grace, sow an indulgence to the sinful man. 55. If penance is performed by employing Brahmans, all its objects are sure to be gained. Indulgence is due to a feeble man, as also to the young and the aged. 56. In case of others, indulgence would be worthy of blame. Therefore indulgence is not sanctioned by law. If from affection, or avarice, or through fear, or ignorance of the law, 57. Indulgence should be shown to a sinner ; then the sin transfers itself from the sinner to those who show indul- gence in prescribing the penance. Similarly the sin will transfer itself to them, if they prescribe an impracticable penance, when the sinner is at the point of death. 58 — 60. For thereby is impeded a momentous duty. But this rule applies not to a healthy man. If, however, the prescribers of expiation, from ignorance of the law, vicari- ously perform the penance for a healthy man, and propound this rule for even him, they obstruct the real expiation of the sinful man, and sink into an impure region of woe. If a person disregards the instructions a Brahman gives, and if he performs the expiation just a^ it pleases himself, his fast is fruitless ; he never wins any religious merit. The form of expiation, which even a single Brahman thinks fit to pre- scribe, should be accepted by all. [The beginning of shloka 58 is thus explained by Madhava. ‘ The momentous duty referred to here is the duty of calling to mind some beneficent divinity at the very moment of death, whereby all sins may be removed then and there. If an impracticable expiation is prescribed, the dying man will be in anxiety and trepidation thinking solely that he was going to die with all his sins unexpiated- And so with a preoccupied mind, the sinner does not even call the to mind, which no doubt would be deplorable. Therefore, one who undertakes to prescribe a penance should be cautious that he does not prescribe an exceedingly severe form of expiation, be- yond the power of the sinful man to perform. But this rule does not apply to a healthy man, I. e., there ought not to be any fear in prescribing the proper form of expiation if the sinner is healthy.] 61 — 62. The sayings of Brahmans must receive accept- ance ; otherwise is incurred the sin of killing a child in the womb. The Brahmans are peripatetic places of pilgrimage, so are righteous persons ; what they utter is like the water from a holy pool. It washes the sins of uncleanly men. What the Brahmans say is respected by the deities them- selves. 63 — 66. In a Brahman are united all the gods. What he says never turns false. Whether a fast, or a recitation, or an act of washing one’s self, or a religious rite, pilgrim- age, or an act of some austerity, if it be performed vicari- ously by a Brahman for another, all its objects are sure to be gained. If there be worms in any food, or if the food be polluted with flies or the like, — water should be touched in the midst of eating the food, and the food itself should be touched with ashes. If a Brahman, while eating, should touch his foot with his hand, he eats the leavings of another person ; and likewise he who eats off a broken plate. One should not eat, while he is wearing his shoes, nor while reclining upon a bed, nor while he is standing up. 67 — 69. Articles of food which have been looked at by a dog, or by a person of the Chandala caste, should be thrown away. What food is forbidden, and what the purification is for polluted food, I am going to tell you, just as Parasara has propounded it. If it is food, which has been already cooked, where its quantity equals an Dhaka or a droids a, and is polluted by contact with a crow or a dog, the owner of the polluted food should present himself before a number of Brahmans, and should submis- sively ask them how the food should be rendered pure. But a quantity of food equal to a drona in measure, though it be touched by the mouth of a crow or a dog-, should never be thrown away as unclean food. 70. Thirty-two prasthas make a drona, and an ddhaha is equal to two prasthas ; so say Brahmans who know the Veda, who are skilled in the branches of it, and whose conduct is regulated by the Institutes of law. 71 — 75. From this, the learned in the Veda and in the law, may readily ascertain what quantity of food a drona or an ddhaka is.’ A Brahman should throw away a small quantity of food, if it has been touched by the mouth of a crow or a dog, or has been smelt by a cow or an ass. If a drona or an ddhaka be its measure, then there is no unclean- ness in it. That part of the food, which the saliva of the animal has made unclean, should be picked up and thrown away ; then the food should be besprinkled with water touched with gold ; then it should be heated near a fire. Touched with the fire, and besprinkled with water which has had a contact with gold, and purified with the hymns of the Veda which the Brahmans recite near the polluted food, it becomes fit to be eaten without a moment’s hesitation. If it be oil or ghee, or milk of the cow, and if the question be, what purification is proper for it, — a small portion should be thrown away ; and the oil or ghee should be strained ; the milk of a cow is purified by applying the flame of a fire to it. End of the sixth chapter. SEVENTH CHAPTER. PURIFICATION OF MATERIALS: 1. Now follows the topic of purification of chattels, in conformity to what Parasara has said. Of wooden vessels, the purification is paring with the adze. 2. A woman becomes pure, by her monthly courses, provided she has not gone astray ; a river is pure, if there is a stream in it, and if no impurities are visible on it. 3. If an elongated tank, or a well, or a reservoir, becomes unclean on any account, a hundred jars of water should be drawn and thrown away, and the remainder is rendered pure by mixing with it the five articles derived from a cow. {_Viz., urine, dung, ghee, milk and curd.] 4. Gauri (fair) is the appellation of a female child, when she is only eight years old ; rohim (scarlet) is her name when she is nine ; she is a hanyd (virgin) when ten years old ; thereafter she becomes similar to a female who has her courses month by month. 5. When the twelfth year is reached by the female child, if the guardian does not give her away in marriage, her fore- fathers drink, without interruption, during each succeeding month, whatever blood is passed in her courses. 6. The mother, and the father, and likewise the eldest brother, all these three relatives will go to hell, if before menstruation they neglect to marry the girl. 7. If a Brahman, deluded by ignorance and pride, comes to marry a girl of the aforesaid kind, he does not deserve to be spoken to ; food should never be partaken in company with him : that Biahman becomes the husband of a Shoodra girl. 8. To remove the sin which a Brahman incurs by enjoy- ing a Shoodra female for a single night, he must for three years subsist on alms, and daily recite sacred hymns. 9. Where after sunset, a Chandala or a degraded man, or a woman in her confinement, or a corpse, has been touched — if the question be, what is the method of purifying one’s self? 10. By looking at the fire, likewise at gold, and at the path by which the moon traverses the sky, and by washing himself when Brahmans have given permission to him, the sinner is rendered free from sin. 11. If two Brahman women, both being then in their monthly courses, should happen to touch each other’s person, they must observe a fast till the courses cease ; both become pure when the third night is passed. 12. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, and the other belong to the Kshatriya tribe, — both being in their monthly courses then, and they should happen to touch each other’s person, the first must observe one half of the Krich- chhra penance, while the second only a fourth. 13. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, and the other belong to the Vaisya tribe, — both being in their monthly courses then, and they should happen to touch each other’s person, the first must observe three-fourths of the Krich- chhra penance ; while the second only a fourth. 14. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, and the other belong to the Shoodra tribe, — both being in their monthly courses then, and if they happen to touch each other’s person, — the first must observe a Krichchhra penance, while the second becomes pure by making a gift. 15. A woman in her monthly courses, is restored to purity after having washed herself, on the fourth day. When the courses actually cease, however, it is then that she should engage herself in the performance of the rites due to the manes and the gods. 16. When the menstrual fluid flows from day to day on account of a disease, it causes no impurity; that is, uncleanness by reason of disease alone. 17. As long as the menstrual fluid continues to flow, so long the acts and doings of the woman cannot be clean. When the courses cease, the woman becomes fit to have intercourse with, and she may then employ herself in the household duties. 18. On the first day that the blood begins to flow, the woman is comparable to a female Chandala ; on the second, she is like a Brahmanicide ; on the third, she may be likened to a washerwoman. On the fourth day, * however, she is entirely pure. [ Madhava says that the comparisons imply this, — as great a sin will be incurred by having intercourse with her on those particular days, as would be incurred by having intercourse with the females is compared to.] 19. If it be necessary for a person not in health, to wash himself in order to expiate a sin, — a healthy person should wash himself for ten successive times, and every time he ie., to touch the person diseased, whereby the latter will be ren- dered pure. 20. While a Brahman has not washed himself after taking his meals, if he chances to be touched by another yet un- washed after a meal, or by a dog, or by a Shoodra, he should fast for a single night, and then swallow the five articles derived from a cow, whereby purity is restored to- him. 21. If himself unwashed, he is touched by a Shoodra, who, however, is not unwashed, — the purification is to wash him- self. If an unwashed Shoodra touches an unwashed regenerate man, the latter must perform the prajapatya penance. 22. A bronze vessel may be rendered clean, by means of ashes being rubbed upon it, provided spirituous liquor does not besmear it. But having come in contact with any sort of spirituous liquor, it can be purified only by fire, and by its surface being scraped with a sharp instru- ment. 23. Bronze vessels smelt by a cow, or polluted by a dog or a crow, or if a Shoodra has made them unclean by eating off them, are rendered pure, when they have been ten times rubbed with ashes. 24. If on a vessel made of bronze, a gargle is cast, or water which has been used in washing the feet, — it should be buried in the earth for full six months, and at the end of that period it may be again taken out and put to use. 25 — 26. Iron vessels are purified, after iron has been rubbed upon them ; a lead vessel is purified by being melted in the fire. In the case of vessels made of ivory, bone, horn, silver, or gold, or of costly stones, or of conch; water should be “used for the purpose of washing them ; thereafter they should be rubbed with stone. This is the purification prescribed by law. 27. Earthen vessels, by being burnt, are rendered clean ; and paddy, when scoured, is rendered clean ; vessels made of bamboo, or bark, and rags, linen, cotton clothing, and woolen cloth, and the birch tree bark ;— these are purified by sprinkling water on them. 28. Furniture made of munja grass, and likewise the winnowing fan, fruits, all sorts of leather and hide, and grass of various kinds, and wood, and ropes — all these are purified by sprinkling on them water. 29. A painting brush, pillows, scarlet cloth, and such other things, after being dried in the sun, are to be sprinkled with water to render them pure. 30. Cats, flies, insects, moths, worms, and frogs, come in contact with both what is pure and what is the reverse of pure; but their contact transmits no impurity. So Manu has said. 31. Running water, while touching the ground, and particles of saliva, flying from each other’s mouth, when a talk is held by two persons ; and oily substances, that may be left, after having been partaken of as food ; these are never unclean ; so it has been said by Manu. By pouring water to the ground, the half drunk water by other brahmanas become pure to be consumed as per Manu. 32. Betel and sugarcane, and likewise fruits, and oily substances which have been partaken of as food, and any unguent for perfuming the body, — these are never unclean on the occasion of offering a madhuparka, or on the occasion of a soma rite. Madhuparka is a present made to an honored guest i.e madhu or honey being an essential part of it] 33. Roads, mud, and water, and boats, and paths, and grass, are purified by the sun and the wind; and so are buildings made of burnt bricks. 34. A continuous stream is never unclean, nor dust which is carried by the breeze here and there ; and women, and aged persons, and infants too, are never unclean. 35. During a civil commotion, or in exile, or when ill, or in misfortune, the first consideration is to preserve one’s life ; practice of religion should at the time be postponed. 36. By any kind of conduct, soft or cruel, one should deliver himself from a distressed state ; the practice of reli- gious rites ought to be left for a period when he is equal to the task. 37. After the misfortune is over, one should think of purification and religious rites. Thereafter purity may be recovered by him. He ought to practice religion when his troubles are past. End of the seventh chapter. EIGHTH CHAPTER. EXPLANATION FOR PRACTISE OF DHARMA: 1. Should cattle happen to die, while tied to a yoke, and without the owner’s wish, — what should the expiation be for this involuntary sin ? 2. The sin should be confessed before a number of such Brahmans as have studied the veda and its branches, as are conversant with the Institutes of Law, and devoted to their duty. 3. Brahmans who know not the Gayatri relating to Savita, who are unacquainted with the Sandhya prayers, and with the sacrifice of fire, and who betake to tillage, — are Brahmans in name only. 4. Brahmans who know not the religious rites, nor the mantras, — who make their living solely on the merit of their caste, — though gathered by thousands, cannot consti- tute a council {parishad for expounding the law). 5. Whatever is said by densely stupid and senseless people unacquainted with the law for the expiation of sin, — the same multiplies a hundred-fold into sin, and the expoun- ders are affected by the multiplied sin. 6. Where one, unacquainted with the Institutes of Law, prescribes an expiation for sin, the sinner is rendered pure — but the sin is transferred to the prescriber. 7. If four or three Brahmans, whose knowledge of the Veda is thorough and complete, unite in expounding a rule of law, — the exposition is to be taken as the law to be followed ; — not what is declared by a thousand men of a different character. 8. In expounding a rule of law, authorities should be sought, and consulted anew; sin is in terror from persons who do the same ; for law declared by them is essentially right. 9. As water deposited on a piece of stone is dried up by the sun and the wind; so sin generated by evil deeds comes to an end, when a council have declared what the atonement is. 10. The sin affects not the sinner ; n attacks not the council; it is destroyed, like water from contact with wind and solar heat. 11. Four or three Brahmans, versed in the Veda, and daily worshipping the household fire, and endowed with capacity, are fit to form a council. 12. If the Brahmans be such as have not set up a sacred fire, but at the same time are thoroughly versed in the Veda and its branches, and are acquainted with what the law is, five, or three of such would form a council. 13. Of saints, possessing knowledge of the nature of the soul, Brahmans in caste, performing sacrificial rites, and who have bathed on completion of the religious ceremonies which the Veda prescribes, even one can form a council. 14. I have first declared five to be the right number; but in the absence of five, three of such as are devoted to the occupation prescribed for their caste, would be fit to con- stitute a council. 15. Besides these — whatever other Brahmans there may possibly be, who are the bearers of the Brahman name alone, — they, even though numbering thousands upon thou- sands, have not the qualification to form a council. 16. Like the figure of an elephant made of wood, or an antelope made with skin, is a Brahman who is not educated : the three merely bear the names. 17. As is the site of a deserted village, or a waterless well, or an offering, made upon what is not fire, — so is a Brahman unacquainted with the mantras. 18. As a eunuch, by uniting with women, can beget no issue ; as a barren soil cannot produce a crop ; as gift is fruitless, if made to an ignorant man; so is a Brahman un- acquainted with the sacred words, good for nothing. 19. As by a gradual putting of tint after tint, a picture is developed into a life-like form; so, sacraments performed with recited hymns, bring out the inherent virtue of the Brahman. 20. If Brahmans, the mere bearers of a Brahman’s name, presume to prescribe a penance for sin, — they are guilty of a sin, and are destined to go to hell. 21. The Brahmans who habitually study the Veda, and are constant in performing the five sacrificial rites, even though addicted to sensual pleasure, are able to deliver all the three worlds. 22. Fire prepared on a cremating ground, can, when kindled, consume all ; similarly a Brahman, who knows the Veda, though eating everything, is yet like a god. 23. It is into the water that people cast all impure things ; in the same way, the burden of all sins should be cast into the fire of a superior Brahman. 24. A Brahman, ignorant of the Gayatri h3^mn, is more unclean than even a Shoodra ; the Brahmans who know the nature and the sanctity of the Gayatri hymn, are honored and revered by all persons. 25.Even a Brahman of a bad character deserves re- pect; but not so a Shoodra, even though his passions may have been subdued by him. Who would quit a wicked cow, and try to milk a docile female ass? 26. The institutes of law form the car on which the Brahman mounts ; the Veda is the sword which he wields ; whatsoever he says is to be taken as the high- est rule of law, 27. One skilled in each of the four Vedas ; one who knows what a religious duty is and what is the expia- tion for its breach ; one who is competent to expound the law ; one versed in the branches of the Veda ; one who has studied the institutes of law ; and the three, who are in any of the higher stages of life — these ten persons are the best fitted to form a council. 28. The penance should be prescribed with the approval of the king ; it should never be prescribed independently of the king ; but where the penance is trifling, it may be carried out (without such approval) . . 29. If the king intends to lay down the law, disregarding what the Brahmans say, — the sin is multiplied a hundred- fold, and, so increased, affects the king 30. Expiations should be prescribed in front of a temple ; then the prescriber shall perform a Kricchra for him- self, and then recite the Gayatri hymn, the mother of the Veda. 31. The sinner must shave his head, including the coronal lock ; he must plunge in the water at sunrise, sunset, and noon ; he must pass a night in the midst of cows ; and in the daytime must follow the footsteps of cows. 32. In heat, in rain, in cold, or when the wind is blow- ing hard, he must not seek to shelter for himself without procuring a shelter for the cow, so far as he is able. 33. Whether it be in his own, or in any other person’s house, or in a field, or on a threshing-floor, — if he espies a cow consuming corn, he must not give a warning to any ; nor must he warn the owne, if the calf be (stealthily) suck- ing the milk. 34. The sinner should drink water when the cows would drink ; he should go to sleep when they are about to sleep ; if a cow gets a fall, and sticks in the mud, he should raise her with the exertion of his utmost strength. 35. He who loses his life for a Brahman’s sake, or on a cow’s behalf, is freed from the sin of killing a Brahman ; so also is he who has saved the life of a Brahman or a cow. 36. Having regard to the special feature of the sin, which may have been incurred by killing a cow, one should prescribe the Prajapatya penance. The two forms of expia- tion, Krichchhra and Prajapatya, may be divided into four grades. 37. For the first day the rule should be to take only a single meal ; for the next day, to eat at night ; for the third day, to eat what, unasked, is given to him ; and on the fourth day, to live on air. 38. For two days, to have only a single meal a day ; for two days to eat only at night ; for two days, to eat, what, unasked, is given to him ; and for two days, to subsist on air. 39. For three days to have a single meal a day, for three days to eat only at night ; for three days to refrain from asking for food ; and for three days, to subsist on air. 40. For four days to have a single meal (a day) ; for four days to eat solely at night, for four days to refrain from asking for food ; and for four days to subsist on air. 41. When the penance has been finished, Brahmans should have a feast given them ; and a gratuity too is to be given them ; and the Brahmans should inaudibly recite the puri- ficatory sacred hymns. 42. The killer of a cow, who has feasted the members of the Brahman caste, will undoubtedly be free from sin. End of the eighth chapter. 41. When the penance has been finished, Brahmans should have a feast given them ; and a gratuity too is to be given them ; and the Brahmans should inaudibly recite the puri- ficatory sacred hymns. 42. The killer of a cow, who has feasted the members of the Brahman caste, will undoubtedly be free from sin. End of the eighth chapter. Ninth chapter Service to cows: 1. Where cows are confined, or are tied, simply with the object of protecting them from harm, no sin arises on the death of a cow, whether (the death be caused by) voluntary or involuntary action. 2. If a cow is killed by striking it with an instrument larger than a stick, then the expiation for it should be twice of what has been detailed hereinbefore. 3. On death from confinement, a quarter of the penance is to be performed ; on death from binding, two quarters ; on death from tying to a yoke, three quarters ; the entire penance, when hitting causes the death. 4 — 5. Death in a pasture, or in the house, or in places difficult of access, or in rugged and uneven spots, or in rivers, seas, and other like places, or at a river’s mouth, or at a spot where the conflagration of a forest has taken place is denominated death by confinement. 6 — 9. Death occurring while a bull is tied to a yoke, or with a band round the belly or neck, or with an ornament of any kind, whether. in a house or in a wood, would be death by binding, whether brought about willfully or not. If death should happen while the bull is attached to a plough, or to a cart, or oppressively burdened by men on the back, then also it is said to be caused by a tie. If a person drunk, heedless, or mad, whether conscious or unconscious of his act, whether willfully or otherwise, excited with wrath, hits the cow with sticks or stones ; and the cow so hit hap- pens to be killed, the death is said to be caused by hitting. 10. A staff as thick as the thumb, and as long as an arm, and which has been recently broken from a tree, is fresh, and has the leaves yet upon it, is denominated a danda or * stick. ^ 11 — 12. If a bull, hit with a stick, falls down, or faints ; then gets up, and walks some five or seven or ten steps ; or eats a mouthful ; or drinks a little water ; and then dies, there is no sin, and no expiation is needed ; provided the bull had been previously afl9.icted with some disease. 13. If the foetus of a cow is destroyed, while it is in an amorphous state, a quarter penance is prescribed for the sin; when it has attained some distinct form, then the penance should be two quarters ; by destroying a foetus which has not yet developed its consciousness, the sinner must perform three quarters. [Madhava says that there are four states of the foetus in the womb, — viz., amorphous, morphous, unconscious, and conscious ; in the amorphous, or panda condition, the foetus is but a bubble.] 14. In a quarter penance, the rule is to shave the hair all over the limbs ; in two quarters, the beard likewise ; in three quarters, the shaving is to be of all hair, except the coronal lock; but on killing after birth, the shaving includes the coronal lock too. 15. In a quarter penance, the gift to be made is a pair of clothes; in two quarters, a vessel made of bronze; in three quarters, a bull ; and in the full, a couple of cattle is the gift prescribed. 16. If all the members of the foetus are complete, or if it be observed to have consciousness, or fully developed in its limbs, large and small — then the sinner must perform twice the penance for killing a cow. 17 — 18. If a person has hit a cow with a piece of stone or with a stick, — he must perform a quarter penance on break- ing a horn; and two quarters on fracturing a bone; on injury to an ear, three quaters ; but the penance should be full, when death is caused. 19. On breaking a horn, a bone, or the spine about the waist, if the animal lives during the next six months, — there is no penance prescribed by law. [Madhava says that, in case the animal survives six months, the penance prescribed for causing death need not be performed ; but the penance for the particular injury must yet be performed.] 20. On causing a fracture or a wound, the sinner with his hand must apply some oily substance to the injured part ; fodder also must be given to it, till it is restored to full strength, 21. The man must nurse it, till its entire body is rendered whole ; and then, in a Brahman’s presence, he is to make obeisance to it, and bid it farewell. 22. If the entire body is not rendered whole again, if the body remains injured still, — then half the penance for kill- ing a cow is to be prescribed for the sinful man. 23. If cattle are bound or confined, with a view to pro- tect them at night, and if pain is caused, by reason of load- ing or unloading the beasts, there is no sin. 24. If a bull happens to be unduly burnt, on the occa- sion of cauterizing an injured part ; or if a bull is loaded beyond his strength ; and if he be sent, so loaded, to cross a river, or travel over hills, — the following penances are prescribed by law : 25. On an excessive burn, a quarter of the penance ; two quarters, in case of an excessive load ; on boring the nose of the bullock, and putting a rope through the bore, three quarters ; on causing death, the entire penance. 26. If a reckless person, using force, causes death to a cow, with a clod, a piece of wood, or a piece of stone, — the following is the penance to be prescribed for him. 27. In case of death being caused by a piece of wood, the penance santapana is prescribed by law ; in case of a clod, the prajapatya penance ; in case of a piece of stone, the tapta krichchhra ; in a case of death being caused by^ a cutting instrument, atikrichchhra is the penance. 28. Five cattle are the gratuity in the santapana pen- ance ; in the Prajapatya, three cows are prescribed; it is eight cows, in the Taptakrichra penance ; thirteen cows in the Atikrichchhra. 29. ^ On killing an animal, gift of a similar animal should be made ; or some price equivalent thereto : this is in con- formity to what Manu has said. 30. If by reason of an excessive burn, a bull should die, while tied with the harness ropes, the penance is a single quarter, duly performed : so Parasara has said. 31. There are six causes by which death may be caused ; confinement ; bonds ; loading ; hitting ; sending to difficult grounds ; and harnessing. 32. If, while the body of the beast is carefully bound with various bonds, the animal happens to die in the house, the sinner is bound to perform half the penance prescribed for killing a cow. 33. The ropes for binding cows must not be made of cocoanut fibre, nor of flax or hemp, nor of hair, nor of munja grass, nor of the bark of a tree, nor of iron chain ; should they be unavoidably bound with any such material, the owner should be ready with an axe, (to sever the bonds,) should any emergency arise. 34. The ropes for binding (cattle) should be made of the fibres of the husk or the kusa grass ; and while so fastened, the beast should have its face turned to the south ; should the beast be burnt while fastened with such ropes, there is no liability to any penance ade for a religious purpose. 35. If, however, there be a piece of wood connected with the ropes of the above character, the question arises, what form of penance is prescribed by law ? In such a case, one should recite the Gayatri hymn, the goddess that purifies sins, and thereby free himself from the sin. 36. If the owner sends his cattle to graze near wells and tanks, to grounds where trees are being felled, or if he sells them to persons who eat beef, — then he is affected with the sin of killing a cow, if death is caused to cattle thus dealt with. 37 — 38. On the occasion of worshipping a bull, should the bull, while being driven to run, (as a part of the ceremony of worship), have his side broken ; or get his ear or heart broken or injured, by reason of falling into a well ; or, while getting out of the well, get his neck or legs injured or broken ; and the animal expire in that state ; — in such a case, three quarters of the penance should be observed. 39. If a cow dies, having, in order to drink water, entered a very deep well, or dies on an embankment by a river, or on a dyke across a river, or at artificial reservoirs for water- ing cattle, — then the owner is liable to no expiation. 40. No expiation is necessary for the death of a cow in a well, or an embankment, or an elongated or a small tank, — or in other excavations made for a religious purpose. 41. But if any one should make an excavation just at the door of a house, or at places where the cows usually dwell, or within the house for his own purposes, (the object not being to win any religious merit,) — he is liable to an expiation, if a cow should expire by falling into it. 42. If cows, while confined or tied at night, are killed by tigers or by snakes, or are burnt to death, or killed by lightning, — there is no liability to expiate the sin. 43. If a village is attacked with flights of arrows, — in consequence whereof cows are killed, or if a house tumbles down and thereby kills cows, — or if they are killed on account of excessive rain, — there is no liability to expiate the sin. 44. For death of cows caused in course of warfare, or a conflagration, or the assault of a hostile force, — there is no necessity for a penance. 45. In a case of difficult parturition, if the cow has to be fastened for drawing the foetus out, and the animal expires in spite of every care, there is no liability to perform a penance. 46. In binding or in confining cows, if a large number dies, by reason of an ^error on the cattle doctor’s part, penance should be directed in such a case. 47. When spectators keep aloof, and refrain from giving help to cows or bulls in distress they are affected by sin. 48. When a single cow is killed by many in concert, and it is not known whose stroke has actually caused the death — then the officers of the king are to subject them all to some form of ordeal, to find out the person who really killed the cow. 49. If a single cow has been put to death by many persons through a mere accident ; they must each separately perform a quarter of the penance for killing a cow. 50. By seeing the blood, it is inferred that a cow has been killed ; leanness shows that disease has been the cause of death ; saliva about the teeth betokens the fact that the bite of some animal must have caused the death : thus is ascertained the fact of natural or violent death. Injuries other than death are inferred by facts like this, — that the animal is averse to take its food ; or is unable to proceed on the way. 51. Manu, versed in all the branches of learning, has prescribed a general penance for killing a cow, where the special features of the sin cannot be known. He directs that a person killing a cow is to observe the lunar fast. 52. If a sinner desires to retain his hair, then he must perform a double penance ; a double fee is essential for a double penance. 53. If the defaulter be a king, or the son of a king, or a learned Brahman, — the penance to prescribe in their case is, that they may dispense with the shaving of the hair. 54. For women and virgins, the shaving of the head is taken as accomplished when the entire mass of hair is raised and the top is clipped to the extent of two fingers’ breadth. 55. As regards a woman, there is no shaving of the head ; nor sitting or sleeping at a distance from home ; nor must a woman spend the night on the grazing ground ; nor in the day-time follow the steps of a cow. A woman must not rest in the cow pen in night, follow cows in daytime,joining of rivers and in forests. 56. Specially must a woman refrain from following the cows, where, to do so would take her to rivers, and conflu- ences, and likewise to forest tracts. Women must not wear a garment of skin. Thus is penance performed in their case : 57. They should wash at sunrise, sunset, and noon ; should also perform the worship of gods ; the penance, whether a Krichchhra or a Chandrayana, is performed by them, while living in the midst of friends. They are to stay in the house, and to perform the penance in a pure spirit. 58. In this world, if a person, who has been guilty of the sin of killing a cow, makes an attempt to conceal the fact, undoubtedly he goes to the frightful hell Kalasutra. 59. Released from that hell, he is born again in the mortal world, a feeble and impotent man, leprous and wretched, for seven successive existences. 60. Therefore sin should ever be disclosed; and the prescribed penance should always be performed. One should forswear immoderate wrath towards a woman, a child, a cow or a Brahman. End of the ninth Chapter. 1. Now I shall describe the penances while are salutary for all the castes. For sexual intercourse with a prohibited relation, the penance meet is Chan dray an a. 2. In the dark half of the month, one must take off from his daily food, mouthful by mouthful on each successive day ; it should begin in the light half of the month ; on the new moon day, there is an absolute fast ; this is the rule for the Chan dray an a penance. 3. Each mouthful is to be made as big as a hen’s egg ; otherwise, the sinful man would be wanting in good faith, and win no religious merit ; so he would not obtain freedom from the sin. 4. Having performed the penance, a feast should be given to Brahmans ; a pair of clothes, and a couple of cattle, form the fee for the Brahmans, 5. Should a regenerate man commit adultery with a woman of the Chandala or Svapaka caste, he should, by order of Brahmans, fast for three successive nights. 6. And Parasara has declared, that the fee to be given is a couple of cows, whereby freedom from the sin is obtained. Should a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, cohabit with a woman of the Chandala caste, 7. He is to perform a double Prajapatya, and to pay a fee of two couples of cattle, each couple to include a female and a male. 8. If a Shoodra commits an act of guilt with a woman of the Chandala or Svapaka caste, he must perform the prajapatya penance, and give a fee of four couples of cattle, each couple to include a female and a male ; 9. If a person, bereft of all sense, cohabits with his mother, or sister, or self-begotten daughter, ho must per- form a three-fold Krichchhra penance ; a tire-fold Chan- drayana should also be performed ; he must, likewise, cut off his male organ. 10. On cohabitation with a mother’s sister, it is requisite to cut off the male organ ; but if it has been done unwit- tingly, the sinner must perform a double Chandrayana. He must give ten couples of cattle, each couple to consist of a female and a male, as fee : this is the expiation as declared by Parasara. 11. On sexual union with a father’s wife, or a near re- lative of the mother, or a brother’s daughter, or the precep- tor’s wife, a son’s wife, or the wife of a brother, or the wife of a brother of the mother, or any woman of the same gotra, a three-fold Prajapatya is the expiation prescribed ; a couple of cattle is the fee to be given. Thus the sinner undoubtedly gets rid of his sin. 12. On carnal intercourse with a beast, or a prostitute and the like, or with a female buffalo, or with a female camel, or with a she monkey, or with a sow, or a female ass, one should perform the Prajapatya penance. 13. On carnal intercourse with a cow, the sin is removed by three nights’ fast; a cow should be presented to a Brahman as fee. On carnal connection with a female buffalo, a female camel or an ass, the sin is removed by one night’s fast. 14. On the occasion of a civil commotion, or in a war, during a famine, or an epidemic, or when people are being carried away as captives of war, or when there is a panic (in the land), one should always look after his wife. 15. If a woman has associated with persons of the Chan- dale caste, — then a meeting of not less than ten Brahmans should be assembled, and she should proclaim her sin before them. 16. A well should be made, deep enough to sink as far as the neck, and full of cow-dung and water and mud ; the woman should fast and stay within the well ; and should come out at the end of an entire day and night. 17. She is to shave her head, including even the coronal hair; she is to eat unripe barley mixed with water; she is to fast for three successive nights, and stay in water for a single night. 18. She must prepare a decoction with either the root, or leaves, or flower or fruit, of the creeping plant called the Sankhapushpi, mixed with gold and the five articles derived from a cow ; and she is to drink this decoction ; then she must live on one meal a day, until she is in menstrua- tion. 19. So long as she performs the penance, she is to dwell outside the house ; after the penance has been fully per- formed, she should give a feast to Brahmans. For fee she should give a couple of cattle. This is the purification declared by Manu, the self-existent’s son. 20. For a woman of any one of the four castes, if she is guilty of a sexual union with a Chandala, the purification is a Chandrayana. As the earth is, so is a woman ; she there- fore should not be regarded as wholly unclean. 21. If a woman is enjoyed by force, or by putting her in terror, or after she has been taken as a prisoner of war ; she is to perform the Shantapana penance : the sin is thus re^ moved, as Parasara has said. 22. If against her will, a woman has been once enjoyed by a wicked man ; she becomes pure by a Prajiipatya, and by the flow of blood during her monthly courses. 23. If a person’s wife drinks spirituous liquor, half his body becomes polluted by sin ; there can be no expiation for him, half whose body has become polluted by sin. But he should perform a Krichchra-sdntapana, while all along re- citing the Gayatri hymn. 24. A Krichchhra-santapana consists in eating cow-dung, cow’s urine, milk, curd, ghee, and water in which kusa grass has been dipped, and likewise a fast for a single night. 25. If a woman becomes pregnant b}^ her paramour, at a time when her husband is dead, or is missing; — she being a wicked and a degraded woman, should be carried to the territory of a different king, and be abandoned there. 26. If a Brahman woman, goes away with a paramour, she should be regarded as totally lost ; there can be no farther intercourse with her. 27. If a woman, from passion, or senselessness, abandons her relatives, her husband and sons, and goes away, she is lost, so far as her future life is concerned ; — altogether lost, so far as her relations are concerned. 28. If a woman is struck with a stick or the like on account of some mischievous or senseless act, and she gets incensed and goes away, and if it be her first offence, — there is no objection to her coming back again. 29. If she comes back within ten days, there is no liability to perform a penance. For ten days, a woman should not be given up as lost. But on information that she has committed the act of sin, she should be given up within ten days. 30. The husband must perform a Krichchhra penance; and the relatives, half a Krichchhra, And those who have associated with them in drinking or eating, are purified by fasting a day and night. 31. If a Brahman female goes away, although not accom- panied by a paramour, still her relatives must give her up, for fear that she may have had, after her departure from the house, sexual intercourse with a hundred men. 32. To whatever house a polluted Brahman woman goes in company of a paramour, — whether her husband’s, or father’s, or mother’s or paramour’s house, — the house itself becomes impure by reason of her presence. 33. That house should be scraped, and then wetted with the five articles derived from a cow ; all the earthen vessels should be thrown away; and the clothing and the wood should be purified. 34. All furniture should be purified in the prescribed form ; vessels made with shells of fruit are to be rubbed with the hair of the cow ; copper vessels should be purified with the five articles derived from a cow, and those of white copper by ten times rubbing them with ashes. 35. A Brahman should perform the penance propounded by other Brahmans ; he should give a fee of a couple of cattle ; and should perform a double Prajapatya. For the others, the purification is a fast for a day and night, and swallowing the five articles derived from a cow. 36. Brahmans and others are purified by fasts, rites, ablutions, daily prayers and worship of gods ; by recitation of sacred hymns, burnt-offerings, by acts of humanity and charity. 37. The ether, the wind, and the fire, are ever pure ; and so is water lying on the ground. The hue a grass, lite sacrificial vessels, are not unclean, so long as the rites are being performed. End of the tenth Chapter. 1. If a Brahman has partaken of any impure food, or has swallowed virile seed, or beef, or a Chandala’s food, he should perform a Krichchhra-chandrayana. 2. If it be a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, he should perform half a Chandrayana. If a Shoodra has committed a sin of the above character, he should perform a Prajapatya. 3. A Shoodra should swallow the five articles derived from a cow ; a regenerate man should drink Brahmakoorccha. The fee to be given is one, two, three or four cows, in the order of castes, — beginning with the Brahman. [Brahmakoorcha will be explained by the author a little further on. Verses 27 to 36.] 4 — 5. If a Brahman has partaken of a S’lidra’s food, or the food of a person unclean on account of an impurity of birth, or of a person who is unfit to be associated with in the matter of food, or any food suspected to be unclean, or any prohibited food, or the leavings of what another has eaten, and if this be done either with or without knowledge, or on account of being in a condition of distress; — the Brahman, when he knows, should perform a Kricchra ; and .part of the purificatory process is to drink Brahma-kirsch. 6. If any food has been polluted by being first touched with the mouth of children, or by mongooses or cats, — it will become pure on being besprinkled with water in which sesamum and the kusa grass have been dipped. 7. When a number of Brahmans have sat down ^together, in a single row, to eat their food, and of them, even when one has left his plate, the others should not be made to eat their respective food. 8. If a Brahman, from ignorance, should partake of the food, after it has become unclean, by the rising of one out of a row, — then he should perform the Krichchhra penance, and likewise the Santapana, 9 — 10. If a regenerate man, without knowledge,partakes of the milk of a cow that has recently calved, or if he eats the white garlic, or the egg-fruit, or the red garlic, or onion, or a juicy exudation from a tree, or the property of a god, or mushrooms, or the milk of a female camel or a female antelope ;-^|y fasting three nights, and eating the five articles derived from a cow, he becomes pure. 11. After knowingly eating the meat of a frog, or of a mouse, a Brahman will become pure by taking unripe barley as food. 12. A Kshatriya, or a Vaishya leading a religious life, and duly engaged in the ceremonies prescribed for his caste, — should on all occasions partake of food in his house, whenever a ceremony for the gods or for departed ancestors takes place in his house. 13. When a Shoodra gives a feast, a Brahman may eat ghee or milk or sesamum oil or any food cooked in some oily substance, — provided he goes to the bank of a river to eat it. 14. If a Shoodra be addicted to flesh meat and spirituous drinks, and constantly engaged in low occupations — he, like a member of the 8’vajpdha caste, should be shunned by a Brahman from afar. 15. A Brahman should never shun such S’lidras as are employed in the service of regenerate men, abstinent of spirit and flesh meat, and duly employed in their own occupation. 16 — 17. If a Brahman unwittingly partakes of food be- longing “to one who is unclean on account of impurity caused by birth or death,— what should be the expiation^ having reference to each particular caste? In case of a S’lidra’s food, unclean on account of impurity by birth, — the purification is the recitation of the Gayatri hymn for eight thousand times ; — in case of a Vaishya, five thousand times ; — in case of a Kshatriya, three thousand times. 18. If the food of a Brahman be partaken, then the recitation should be two thousand times. Or purity may be attained by reciting the hymn of the Somaveda, which is known under the name of the Rishi Vamadeva. 19. If dry food or milk, or any oily substance, be brought from a S’lidra’s house and cooked in a Brahman’s house, — that may be taken as food : — So Manu has said. 20. If at a time of distress, a Brahman has eaten in a Shoodra’s house, he becomes pure by repentance; — or he should one hundred times recite the verse of the Veda named the Drupada. 21. Among the Shoodras, these are the sub-castes whose food it is allowable to partake ; — viz., a Dasa, a Gondola (cow- herd), a Napita (barber), a Kulamitra, an Ardhashareerin ; and also one who delivers himself up. 22. A person begotten by a Brahman upon a Shoodra female, is a Dasa if he has not received the sacrament ; he becomes a Napita on receiving the sacrament. 23. A son begotten by a Kshatriya on a Shoodra female, is known” by the name of Gopala ; Banishments undoubtedly may partake of his food. 24. A person begotten by a Brahman on a Vaishya female, on receiving the sacrament is known by the name of Ardhika ; Brahmans may no doubt partake of his food. 25 — 26. If among castes, whose food it is not allowable to partake, — water, or curd, or ghee, or milk contained in any vessel belonging to them, be unwittingly partaken by one — what should be the purification ? If a Brahman, or a Kshatriya, or a Vaisya, or a Shoodra comes to have an answer to the above question, — (then this is the answer). A fast and Brahma kricchra are the purifications for a member of any of the four castes. 27. But there is no fast prescribed for a Shoodra. He becomes pure by making a gift. Brdhmakurchcha together with a whole day’s fast would purify even a Svapaka. 28. Urine of the cow, cow-dung, milk, curd, and ghee, these five are the five articles derived from a cow. They, and water in which the kusa grass has been dipped, — are themselves pure, and therefore purify the sin. 29 — 31. Urine of a black cow ought to be taken; dung of a white cow ; milk of a copper-coloured cow ; and curd from the milk of a blood-coloured one ; the ghee from the milk of a tawny cow ; or all the five may be taken from a tawny cow. One pala of urine should be taken ; cow-dung as high as half the thumb; seven of milk, and three palas of curd ; one pala of ghee ; and one pala of water in which kusa grass has been dipped. 32. The cow’s urine should be gathered, with the reci- tation of the Gayatri verse ; the cow-dung, with the verse be- ginning with the word ‘ gandhadvaram ;’ the verse for taking milk begins with ‘ Aappyayasva.’ That for curd begins with * dadhikravno.’ 33. The verse to be recited when ghee is taken begins with the words, ^ 8’ulcramasi ; ‘ that for the water with the kusa grass dipped in it begins with the words ‘ devasya tva.’ The five articles derived from a cow, so sanctified by the recitation of the rig-veda verses, are to be placed near the fire. 34. The mixture should be agitated with the verse ‘ Apohishta, &c. ” ; then it should be again sanctified with the verse, * Maanastokay’ Not less than seven kusa grasses, with their thin ends uncut and intact, and which possess a fresh, shining colour like that of a parrot, should be used in taking up the mixture, and it should be thus made an offering of upon the fire. 35. The verses to be recited at the time of offering on the fire are those beginning respectively with the words, — *l7’dvaU;’ ^ Idan vishmi ^ Manastoke ; ^ and also the verse which has the word * sedum * in it. What remains after the offerings on the fire should be drunk by the Brahman. 36. When being drunk, it should be agitated with the recitation of the word * om called the “pranava “; it should be churned, and taken up and drunk, each act being accom- panied by the recitation of that word. 37. Whatever sin there may lie in the body of embodied beings, lurking in the skin or in the bones, — is wholly burnt by the ‘ Brahmakoorchcha ; ‘ as fuel is burnt by kindled fire. For, it is pure in all the three worlds, and gods themselves are within it. 38. The god Varuna is in the urine of the cow ; the god of sacrificial fire in the cow-dung ; the god of wind in the curd ; the moon in the milk ; and the sun in the ghee. 39. When drinking, should any water issue from the mouth and drop into the vessel ; that should be considered as not fit to be drunk ; one must perform the Chandrayana penance for it. 40 — 44. If a Brahman sees that the carcase of a dog, a jackal, or a monkey has fallen into a well; or that a bone, skin, or the like has fallen ; and if he has drunk of the polluted water ; or if he sees a corpse has fallen ; or the carcase of a crow, or an ordure-eating hog, an ass, a camel, a gavaya, an elephant, a peacock, a rhinoceros, a tiger, a bear, or a lion ; and if the dead body sinks into the well ; and if water of a tank so polluted be drunk ; the expiation will be for all the castes, in accordance with the following order. A Brah- man becomes pure by three nights’ fast ; a Kshatriya by two days’ fast ; a Vaisya by one day’s fast ; and a Shoodra by fasting for a night. 45. If food of one who never cooks for the Visvedevas, or of one who habitually eats in another man’s house, or of one who never cooks for giving food to others, be partaken by a Brahman, — he should perform the Chandrayana pen- ance. 46. If gifts are made by one who never cooks to give food to others, — they are fruitless, so far as the giver is concerned. Both he who gives and he who takes are destined to go to hell. 47. He,, who having accepted and set up the household fire, does not perform the five sacrifices, — the saints declare him to be ‘ a person averse to cook for the sake of others.’ 48. He, who every day raises in the morning, and, having himself performed the five sacrifices, subsists upon another’s food, — he is the ‘ person who eats in another’s house.’ 49. He, who being in the householder stage of life, is totally devoid of all acts of gift, is declared by saints ac- quainted with law, as ‘ a person who never cooks for others.’ 50. Different are the rules for each cyclical age ; the Brahmans who observe the religious rules prescribed for the particular age, are not deserving of lany censure ; for as the age is, so must the Brahmans be. 51. If ‘ hum ‘ (an exclamation of disrespect) be addressed to a Brahman ; or if a superior be addressed with ‘ thee and thou ; ‘ one should bathe, and fast for the rest of the day ; should bow down, and beg pardon. 52. If one strikes a Brahman even with a wisp of grass, or drags him with a piece of cloth thrown round his neck ; or wins even a lawsuit against him ; he should bow down and beg pardon. 53. For belabouring with a stick, the expiation is to fast an entire day ; for knocking a Brahman down, three nights’ fast ; if blood is drawn, the penance is atikricchra ; in case of inward bleeding, the Krichchhra is the penance. 54. One performing the Atikrichchhra penance is to sub- sist for nine days on as much food as may fill the palms of his hands ; and there ought to be a fast for three nights. This is called the Atikrichchhra penance. 55. When there takes place an intermixture of all the sins, the repetition of the Gayatri verse, ten thousand times, is the highest form of a purification. [The word ‘intermixture,’ ‘sankara’ in the original, seems to mean the commission of more than one sin by one person at the same time.] Doing 10,000 times gayathri japa will pure. End of the eleventh Chapter. 1. After dreaming a bad dream, or vomiting, or shav- ing, or sexual intercourse, or contact with smoke from a funeral pile, the purification is to wash oneself. 2. For swallowing unwittingly ordure or urine, or any food that has had a contact with spirituous liquor, the three regenerate castes must again undergo the sacramental rites. 3. In the second performance of the sacramental rites, the bearing of a skin garment, the string for the waist, the stick, and the ceremony of begging alms — are dispensed with. 4. With a view to purification, If he having swallowed ordure or urine, one should perform a Prajapatya ; should prepare and drink the five articles derived from a cow ; and should bathe : these render him pure. 5. What should be the expiation of the offender (Pratya- vasita) who tries to kill himself by falling into water, or fire, or by falling from a precipice, or by undertaking a journey for a suicidal purpose? 6. The three (inferior) castes are rendered pure by a double Prajapatya, by a pilgrimage to holy places, and by a gift of ten cows accompanied by a bull. 7 — 8. I shall now relate the expiation for a Brahman. He must go to a forest, and, at a spot where four roads meet, just shave his head, including the coronal lock, and then perform a double prajapatya. He is to give a fee of two cows. This is the purification prescribed by Parasol. He is thereby freed from that sin, and is restored to his Brahman caste. 9. The learned have declared five kinds of bathing to purificatory : the Agneya or fiery bathing, the Varuna or the watery bathing, the Brahma or Vedic bathing, the VAyavya or windy bathing, and the Divya or the celestial bathing. . 10 — 11. The Agneya bathing consists in bathing with ashes ; the Varuna is plunging into the water ; the Brahma consists in reciting the verse ‘ apohishta, &c. ;’ the Vayavya is bathing with the dust raised by the hoof of a cow ; but the celestial bathing takes place when one is drenched with, rain-water, the rain coming down while the sun is shining. This kind of bathing is of equal efficacy with the bathing in the river Ganga. 12 — 13. When a Brahman is going to bathe, all the gods, together with all the groups of the Pitrus, assume an airy form, and follow him, being thirsty, and desirous to have a drink of water. If the wet garment is wrung, they return, their hopes being unfulfilled; therefore, one should not wring his wet garment before offering libations of water to the Pitrus. 14. If, while offering libations of water to the Pitrus, one should place the sesamum seed in contact with the pores ^ at the root of the hair on the body, and should offer liba- tions with the seeds so placed, he should thereby be offering libations of blood. and impurities to the Pitrus, 15. If, after bathing, a Brahman shakes his dripping hair, or performs Achamana or (sipping water from the palm of his hand,) while yet he is in water, — he is not acceptable to the Pitrus and the gods. 16. If, while performing the rite of Achamana, he has his Lead or throat wrapped with cloth, or the posterior hem of Lies under-garment is not tucked up, or his coronal lock is not tied, or if he is without his sacred thread, he remains impure, in spite of the ceremony of Achamana. 17. When he has come out of the water, he should not perform Achamana in such a way that the drops may fall upon the water ; nor should he do so while in the water, in such a way as to let the drops of water fall upon the land ; he should perform it while touching both water and land; thereby he becomes pure on the land and in the water. 18. One should perform Achamana, after bathing, drink- ing, sneezing, eating, travelling on the road, and change ing his garment, although he may have performed it once before. 19. After sneezing, spitting, touching the teeth, or tell- ing a* lie, or holding conversation with sinful men, one should touch his right ear. 20. Fire, water, the gods, the moon, the sun, and the wind, all dwell in the right ear of a Brahman. 21. Bathing in the daytime, while being purified by the rays of the sun, is the approved form of bathing. Bathing at night is not approved unless when the Rahu is visible in the heavens. [Z e., when an eclipse of the moon takes place.] 22. Bathing, making of gifts, austerities, and burnt-offer- ings, may be made at night when an eclipse is seen. Night otherwise is impure ; therefore night is to be shunned in performing rites. 23. The Mouths, the Vases, the radars, the Amity’s, and other deities, all disappear with the moon. Therefore, gifts are not proper at night. 24. At the ceremony on the threshing-floor, at marriage, when the sun passes over from one Zodiacal sign to another, and during an eclipse, gifts are allowable in the night time ; but not allowable in any other case. 25. Making of gift at night is approved, if a son has been born, or at a sacrifice, or on the occasion of an obse- quial rite, or when an eclipse is visible ; but not approved in any other case. 26. The two praharas or watches in the middle of the night are called Mechanistic. During the pradosha, or the first watch of the night one may perform bathing, as in the day-time. Pradosha seems to be the first prahara after sunset.] 27. A tree on a burning-ground, a funeral pile, pus, a Chandala, and a seller of the Soma plant ; having touched any of these, — a Brahman should plunge into water with his clothing on. 28. Before the gathering of bones, one, having wept, should perform the ceremony of bathing. For a Brahman, (the gathering bones) should be performed within the tenth day Achamana should be performed after it : 29. When the sun or the moon is seized by rahu, [I. e., when a solar or a lunar eclipse takes place], all water becomes as pure as the water of the Ganga, so far as bathing and giving, and other religious rites are concerned. 30. Bathing performed with the kusa grass is purifica- tory ; a Brahman should makes Achamana with the kusa grass ; water taken up with the kusa grass is as holy as a drink of the Soma juice 31. Those who do not cherish the household fire, who are devoid of the daily conjunctional adorations, and who do not study the Veda, — they all are declared as S’lidras. 32. Therefore, for fear of being turned into a Shoodra, every Endeavour should be made, particularly by a Brahman, to study at least a portion of the Veda, (every day) in case he is unable to study the whole. 33. A Brahman subsisting, upon a S’lidra’s food, though he be engaged in constant study, in making burnt- offerings, and in reciting sacred verses, is not destined for an upward course. 34. To eat a Shoodra’s food, to associate with him, to sit in the same place with, him, and receive knowledge by his instruction, would cause degradation even to one who re- sembles the kindled fire. 35. A Brahman who gets his food habitually cooked by a Shoodra woman, or has got a Shoodra woman for the matron of his house, is shunned by the pitrus and the gods, and goes to the hell called Battrava. 36. If a Brahman fattens himself with the food of a Shoodra polluted by the impurity of birth or death, I do not know what (vile) animals he will be born (in subsequent lives). 37. Twelve times he will be born as a vulture ; ten times as a hog ; seven times as a dog ; this is what Manu has said. 38. To gain a fee, if a Brahman performs burnt-offer- ings, as an officiating priest, on a S’lidra’s behalf; ^le Brahman becomes a Shoodra, and the Shoodra a Brahman. ^ 39. If a Brahman sits down, having taken a vow of silence, — he should not speak ; if, while eating, he utters words, then he should cease to eat that food. 40. When his meal is but half finished, if he drinks water in that vessel, (which contains the food ?) — he thereby destroys all the virtuous works that he has done for the satisfaction of the gods and the Pitrus ; he likewise destroys his own soul. 41. While Brahmans are eating together, if one out of them leaves his plate before the others have finished their meal, he is a dunce ; he is the worst of sinners ; he is de- clared to be the killer of a Brahman. 42. While the vessels for food still remain in their presence, if the Brahmans utter the word of ‘farewell,* (‘svasti’ in the original), the gods in that case have not their hunger appeased ; and the ‘pitrus are disappointed. [Madhava says that before the vessels of food are washed, the cere mony ‘svastivachana’ should not take place. This ceremony con sists in the utterance of a certain Vedic verse in which the word ‘ svasti ‘ repeatedly occurs. It is preparatory to giving the fee to the’ Brahman and bidding him farewell ; ‘ svasti ‘ means ‘ well-being.’] 43. One should never take his meal, except after bathing, reciting the sacred verses, and making burnt-offerings on the fire ; nor should one eat off the reverse side of a leaf ; nor at night, without a light. 44. The householder, who is kind, devoted to reflecting on virtue and for the good of those whom he has to support, and strictly impartial is the most sensible. 45. With wealth acquired by righteous means, one should support himself. He who makes his living by unrighteous means, is unworthy to perform duty. 46. A person who preserves his sacred fire, a tawny cow, a person engaged in offering a sacrifice, a king, a religious mendicant, and the great ocean, — the very sight of these purifies one ; therefore one should constantly obtain a sight of them. 47. One should keep in his house the following things : the wood for striking out a sacrificial fire, a black cat, sandal-wood, a precious stone, ghee, sesamum seed, a black skin, and a goat. 48. A piece of land, upon which may stand, without being closely tied, a hundred cows, and a single bull — ten times the area of such a field -is called a gocharma (cow’s hide) of land. 49. By making a gift of a gocharma quantity of land, a person is freed from all sins, such as the killing of a Brahman, and like other sins, which he may have com- mitted, by word of mouth, or in thought, or in deed. 50. If a gift is made to a person who has a family to support, to an indigent person specially to one learned in the Veda, — that gift becomes a source of good. 51. A person who wrongfully appropriates land can never be pure, although be may excavate tanks, wells, reservoirs and the like, and perform a hundred Vajapeya and other sacrifices, or may present a crore of cows. 52. If a woman is in menstruation within eighteen days from the last time she was, simple bathing will purify her ; if after that period, the saint Ushanas has declared that the rule of three nights must be observed. 53. A person becomes impure by approaching a Handclap, a woman in confinement, a woman in menstruation, or a degraded sinner, within the distance of a yoke, or two yokes, or three yokes, or four yokes, in the reverse order. [A yoke is a particular measure of length. ‘ In the reverse order,’ I. ^., the rule of one yoke’s length applies to a degraded sinner and ^o on.] 54. If a Brahman comes nearer than the aforesaid lengths, he should bathe with his clothing on; if, unwit- tingly he comes in contact (with any of them), he should bathe, and then look at the sun. 55. When his hands exist, if a Brahman, wanting in knowledge, drinks water with his mouth plunged into it [like a beast], he surely shall be born as a dog (in his next birth). 56 — 57. If a man, being angry, calls his wife by the name of a relation with whom sexual intercourse is prohi- bited by law, and if he again desires to treat her as a wife ; then he must proclaim his sins in a meeting of Brahmans ; he must there say, — ‘ I have done so, while I was fatigued, or angry, or senseless, or hungry, or thirsty, or terrified.’ If a Brahman has failed to fulfill a promise of making a gift, or a vow of performing a religious rite ; — the expiation is three days’ fast. 58. ^ He should, at a confluence of great rivers, bathe three times, at dawn, noon, and sunset. After completing the expiation, be should give away a cow, and feast ten Brahmans. 59. If a Brahman eats the food of a wicked Brahman addicted to forbidden deeds, he must observe one day’s fast, ; . 60,. Within the same day, he may become pure, if he would eat the food of a Brahman who leads a religious life, and is versed in the Veda and its branches. 61. If a person dies in contact with impurities from the I upper part of the body or the lower part of the body, or I if he dies while not in direct contact with the surface of the ground, or if he dies while he was affected with some ring purity on account of a relative’s birth or death, his line.,. should perform three Krichchhras, [‘ To die not in direct* contact with the surface of the ground ‘ J is the translation of the ‘ antariksha mrita ‘ in the original. It \ literally means ‘ dying in the air ‘ vr ‘ in a vacant space.’ An instance ^ is when a person dies, while lying down on a bedstead.] I 62. A Kricchhra consists in reciting the Gayatri verse/ ten thousand times ; or reciting the Pranayama two hundred times ; or bathing twelve times in a holy place, without^ drying the head after each bath ; or in making a pilgrimage to a distance of two ‘yojanas’ (eight kroshas). 63. If a householder willingly causes the discharge of his virile seed otherwise than in sexual intercourse, he should recite the Gayathri verse one thousand times, and should perform three Pranayamas. 64. A Brahman, versed in the four Vedas, should in a proper form, propound, by way of expiation for killing a Brahman, a visit to the dyke on the sea (constructed by sethu near Cape Comorian) . 65. The sinner, staying at the spot where the dyke was made, must live by begging from the four castes ; must shun persons of wicked deeds; and must not use an umbrella, nor wear shoes. 66. He is to proclaim himself thus : — ” I am a sinner ; I have committed a heinous sin ; I have killed a Brahman ; I am standing at the door of the house, with the expectation of getting some alms.” 67. He should likewise dwell in the midst of cows, with- in villages or cities ; or in places of hermitage, or of pil- grimage ; or near the sources of rivers. 68 — 69. At these, he is to proclaim his sin. By visiting the holy sea, extended over a breadth of ten yojanas, and over a length of one hundred yojanas, and piled up with the dyke constructed by the monkey Nala at the command of Ramachandra, and by looking at the dyke, one is freed from the sin of killing a Brahman. 70. His soul being purified by a sight of the sea, he should plunge into the sea. Or if he be a king, ruling a territory, he should perform a horse-sacrifice. 71 . Coming back, he reaches his house for dwelling there, with his sons and his servants, where he is to give a feast to the Brahman s, and he is to give a fee of one hundred cows to such Brahmans as are proficient in the four Vedas. 72. The killer of a Brahman is freed from his sin, if the Brahmans are prepared to give him a solution. [This seems to imply, that if the Brahmans are satisfied that his expiation has been properly performed, and express an opinion to that effect, the sinner is freed from the sin.] 73. The visit to the Setubandha has been declared to be the form of expiation proper for a person whose residence is to the north of the Vindhya hill. This is the opinion of Parasara. 74. For killing a woman, engaged in performing a religi- ous sacrifice, the same expiation, which is prescribed for killing a Brahman, must be undergone. 75. A Brahman who has drunk wine must go to a river that falls into the sea; he must perform a Chandrayana, which being finished, he is to give a feast to the Brahmans, and by way of a fee, he is to give a cow and a bull to the Brahmans. 76. If a Brahman has drunk wine only once, he must drink flaming hot spirituous liquor ; thereby he will purify himself, both as regards this world, and as regards the other world. 77. If gold belonging to a Brahman be stolen by one, he is to take a pestle in his hand, and of his- own accord to come before the king, in order that the king may kill him. 78. If he is let off by the king, or if he is killed, — in either case, he is freed from the sin. If the theft has been willingly committed, it is then that he is fit to be killed 79. As a drop of oil spreads over the water, — so is sin transmitted from one person to another, by reason of sitting, sleeping, travelling, talking, and eating together with a sinner. 80. The chandrayana penance, the eating of unripe bar- ley, the form of making a gift, called the Tulapurusha, [I, e., making a gift of such a quantity of any substance as is equal in weight to a male human being], and the act of walking behind cows, — these put an end to all kinds of sin. 81. This compilation of the ordinances of law, consist- ing of five hundred and ninety-two slokas, is the work of Parasara. 82. In accordance with the rules for studying (similar works), these institutes of law should be carefully studied, without fail, by a person who desires to go to heaven. Must be read sincerely who wish to attain Swarga! End of the Twelfth Chapter. END OF PARASHARA SMRITHI

%d bloggers like this: