Takra: Buttermilk, The divine healer

“He who uses takra daily does not suffer from diseases, and diseases cured by takra do not recur; just as amrita (divine nector) is for the gods, takra is to humans.” Bhavaprakasha Chpt 6.7

Daily intake of Takra keeps the person healthy by virtue of its agni deepak and tridosha shamak properties. In combination with different drugs, Takra is indicated in various disorders.

Takra or buttermilk, not to be confused with the buttermilk we buy already prepared by other methods in the store, is a liquid preparation prepared by continuously churning yogurt in water. This preparation is used in many diseases and is overall quite healthy for the human being. It is a great treatment for IBD and Crohn’s disease as well as poor digestion, hemorrhoids, tumors, oedema, diarrhea, anemia, urinary diseases and many more.

When taken in the correct quantity, takra cleanses the channels of circulation (srotas), as a result of which rasa, the end product of digestion of food, reaches the tissues properly. It creates proper nourishment, strength, and complexion. It cures one hundred diseases including those of vata (80 in number) and kapha (20 in number).

There is no medicine better than buttermilk for treatment of hemorrhoids cause by vata and kapha. – Charaka Samhita CS. Chpt 14

The microchannels carrying nutrients to all cells in the body, when they get clogged or blocked due to any reason, the particular organ or system suffers in efficiency due to lack of nutrition. It is essential to remove such blockages. The herbs or their combinations which tackle these problems are termed “Rasayana” in Ayurveda. The forces which cause the blockage or resistance must be removed. The channels which cause transport are termed “strotas”. Charaka states that buttermilk removes such blockages and purifies the “strotas”. This causes better movement (ayana) of the nutrients (anna-rasa). When adequate nutrition is obtained by cells (koshas), they start working with full force. Due to saturation or ageing of strotas during old-age, the control systems of the body do not get adequate nutrients, which causes aging symptoms such as reduction of memory (dementia), reduced vision, wrinkles on the skin, graying of hair, etc. But those who take buttermilk regularly, slow aging, keep their arteries flexible for a longer time. Thus buttermilk is an elixir (param-amrutam) which keeps `Jara’ (oldage) and `Vyadhi’ (disease) away. The ayurveda treats buttermilk as an excellent food to keep cholesterol related problems miles away.

With all of that said, you see how great takra is for health of digestion and this means the entire health of the body and mind.


There are three types of Takra according to Acharya Charaka.

1. with all of the butter removed or skimmed or put through a strainer

2. with half of the butter removed

3. With no butter removed

These are used as per the individual’s health and constitution mainly based upon their ability to digest.


The properties of takra are:

Taste: Astringent, sour, and sweet

Secondary taste: Astringent

Potency or energy: Hot

Post digestive effect: Sweet

Quality: Binding, light, dry

Actions: digestive, promotes intellect and nourishes the brain tissues, promotes immunity, pacifies vata, and gives satisfaction.


Sushruta Samhita states that the properties of buttermilk is of 2 types based on the taste viz., madhura and amla (sweet and sour) with kashaya anurasa (astringent in secondary taste); laghu (light), ruksha (dry) in nature; ushna veerya (hot in potency) and madhura vipaka (sweet at the end of digestion) and kindles the digestive power

Types of buttermilk based on Fat content

Type of buttermilk

Method of preparation


Ruksha Takra

Churned curd from which fat is completely removed

Mandatama Agni (poorest digestivcapacity), Adhama bala(least body strength), increased Kapha dosha

Ardhodruta snehTakra

Churned curd from which half of the fat is removed

Mandatar Agni (poores digestivcapacity), Madhyama bal(moderate strength), increased Pitta dosha

Anudhruta sneha takra

Churned curd from which fat is not at all removed

Manda Agni(poor digestive capacity), Uttama bala(strong body strength), increased Vata dosha

Types of Buttermilk based on Method of Preparation and Water content

Type of buttermilk

Method of preparation

Properties and Actions


Churned curd without adding water and without removal of fat

Mitigates Vata pitta, gives contentment when mixed sugar


Churned curd without adding water but devoid of fat

Pacifies Kapha and pitta


Churned curd by adding one-fourth quantity of water to it

Light for digestion and kindles digestive


Churned curd by adding half part of water to it

Kaphakaraka (Increases kapha), balya (strengthening)


Devoid of fat by churning and then added with more quantity of water

Pacifies Pitta and Vata, relieves thirst, tiredness, kindles digestive fire by adding saindhava lavana

Contraindications of taking takra:

Even though buttermilk is well-advised diet in many diseases, sour fat free buttermilk cannot be used in conditions like trauma/wounds, ushna kala (hot seasons ushnkale sharad greeshmayo) krisha (debilitated persons) and sutika (puerperium); sour buttermilk in  fainting, giddiness, burning sensation & disorders of rakta and pitta; sweet full fat buttermilk in aggravated kapha which is situated specially in chest, throat and head. In the warm, the vital functions of lactic acid bacteria accelerate and they convert more milk sugar into lactic acid. As a result, the taste of the product becomemore sour then maybe not acceptable to the palate of many people.



How to make it:

Buttermilk is prepared by churning the curd in a vessel by adding 1/4th to 1/2 parts of water. The fat called butter is separated. The liquid portion that is neither too thick nor too thin is considered as buttermilk
– Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthana; Dravadravyavidhimadhyaya: Chapter 45, Verse 85.

This is really easy. Just take a small amount (1/5th) fresh whole yoghurt and add it to 4/5th water. The easiest way in the West I have found to do the churning is to put it in a bottle, make sure the lid is screwed on tight and shake the mixture for a couple minutes. The butter will separate from the curd and float and make dry looking bubbles. This is the part you might be skimming off the top if the digestion is really weak. It changes the properties of the buttermilk to make this in the blender. Do both and try them side by side for yourself to create that discernment of how actions have their results with substances. It is a good example.

To this mixture many herbs can be added as per the desired effect for treatment of different ailments. As a general drink it is good with a little of roasted cumin and some rock salt. Another delicious way to have it is with some coriander and a little salt. My favorite is with a bit of rock sugar added. (pitta) A classical way to mix is using asafoetida (hing) and rock salt.

How to use:

For general digestive problems this little drink can be taken for breakfast. As for treatment of other diseases it is best to see a real ayurvedic doctor for diagnosis and treatment.
The buttermilk made by adding water 25% by volume of curd is “warming”, called “Takra”, and therefore should not be taken in late summer and fall when pitta is accumulating and going into excess (note here that Western Ayurveda is incorrect in teaching that pitta is high in summer due to it being hot. This idea of pitta being in prakopa in summer is the normal Western superficial teaching and wrong understanding of Ayurveda with no depth of the details. This contraindication of taking buttermilk proves this.). Excess diluted buttermilk (100% water added to equal quantity butter) is “cooling” in nature.

Care is necessary to see that curd is not sour (yogurt bought in the store is excessively sour) and water added should be taken warm in winter and cold in summer. Buttermilk is not recommended after sunset. Especially for asthmatics. If must, make a special recipe by adding a little chickpea flour, turmeric powder, green chillies, to kill its Kapha promoting tendency.


In general, takra can be simply modified in cases of…

Increased Vata Dosha – Sour buttermilk + rock salt (Saindhava) OR Sour Buttermilk + dry ginger+ rock salt

Increased Pitta Dosha – Sweet buttermilk + Sugar candy(Sita)

Increased Kapha Dosha – Sweet buttermilk + Trikatu (Shunti, Maricha, Pippali) + Alkali(Kshara)

Takra can also be added to rice dishes instead of water for a real delicious treat.

Butter milk detoxifies body and cleanses the intestines, relieves constipation and helps to replenish intestinal flora. It has less fat compared to milk and is rich in calcium, potassium and vit B12.

Each 100 grams of Buttermilk consists of the Nutrient Values in below mentioned proportions


40 kcal


90.13 g



4.79 g


3.43 g


0.51 g

Micronutrients – Vitamins

Vitamin A

47 IU

Vitamin C

1.0 mg

Vitamin B 6

0.034 mg

Vitamin D

1 IU


0.034 mg


0.154 mg


0.058 mg

Micronutrients – Minerals


151 mg


116 mg

Buttermilk contains various proboitics mainly L. lactis subsp. lactis, L. lactis subsp. lactis var. diacetylactis, L. lactis subsp. Cremori. The probiotics are the ‘live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefits to the host. The presence of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Lactic Acid in buttermilk inhibit the growth of many pathogenic organisms. Continuous consumption of Lactic fermented milk may help to change the intestinal flora and prevent the growth of putrefactive organisms. Lactic fermented milk products are more readily digested than unfermented milk by persons suffering from intestinal disorders. They not only improve intestinal tract health but also do various functions like suppressing the endogenous pathogens and exogenous pathogens, enhancing the immune system modulation, cholesterol reduction, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, aid in lactose digestion, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, urogenital infection, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals, decreases the production of a variety of toxic or carcinogenic metabolites and aid absorption of minerals, especially calcium, due to increased intestinal acidity. It was also found to protect against colon cancer by Sphingomyelin which is specifically responsible for the reduction in the number of apoptosis- resistant cells. Drinking buttermilk also significantly lowers blood pressure on regular consumption.






67 thoughts on “Takra: Buttermilk, The divine healer

  1. Thank you for this informative article. Would I have to first make the yoghurt myself? Or can I buy organic yoghurt (does it need to be full cream?) and make the buttermilk from the bought yoghurt, adding jaggery and himalayan rock salt? I’m a Vata/Pitta, but have a Pitta illness at the moment, yet my Ayurvedic practitioner recommended buttermilk. Thank you.

  2. Pingback: Takra: Buttermilk, The divine healer | trueayurveda

  3. are there any incompatible food combinations with buttermilk? (Meat, beans, paneer, eggs, etc.)? Should it be consumed before, during or after a main meal? If before or after, how much time before or after the meal?

    • From my memory one major incompatibility is with monkey face tree/ kampilaka. Don’t have any of that do ya? It is a herb called Mallotus philippinensis. I would not worry much about it as most of what is eaten and the way it is eaten is already not proper. This one is not a biggie. 1/2 cup to a cup after a meal is fine. And just so that you understand, this is all in general. Everything in Ayurveda is as per the individual or in other words, I can’t possibly tell you how much or when to take without knowing what your situation is. Hope that helps.

    • What about milk though? Imagine drinking a cup of milk after a meal.. or eating the sweet rice recipe (the one on your blog) prepared with milk while drinking takra..?

    • What about fruits? I eat cooked fruits (that are in season) with a bit of cinnamon as breakfast sometimes. Adding some misri sugar when the fruits are too sour. Drinking a sweetened buttermilk with rose petals along with it. Asking this because generally I thought they should be eaten alone (fruits).

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  5. Hi. thank you for posting this informative article. I am about to start a small buttermilk joint and would like to know the ratio of buttermilk to water that i can add. Is it 100:100 ratio or something else. It is start of the summer in bangalore (India) now. and how can i make it tasty and very healthy. Please help me.

    • Sujay,
      There are 11 different types of buttermilk all with their own reasons for being made as per ayurveda and what they are good for and for whom and why. There are many many many recipes with their amounts and details for many diseases. If you are opening a place, please do not call it Ayurveda or Ayurvedic without knowing what you are doing and why. It is not ethical nor would that ba Ayurveda. You are totally safe with a 1:5 ratio curd to water. Takra itself is only one of those 11.
      Good luck with your business and keep it on the up and up.

    • Hi, thanks for your reply. I will surely keep 1:5 ratio in mind. I have one more question which is about the spices. I was planning to add coriander, mint leaves, curry leaves with chopped ginger, chopped green chillies, hippLi, cumin powder, hing. Could you please guide if all these are fine to add and can be given to any one who comes or should I eliminate some.

    • There are two posts on buttermilk and you will find enough information there. I would advise you to stick to the basics and not make up stuff. I may do another posting on buttermilk soon. Buttermilk is not to be consumed in early summer and Autumn. or when there is open wounds as it will stop the wound from healing. Other contraindication are if one as burning sensations, fainting, pulmonary consumption, and bleeding diseases in general. Ayurveda does not make one thing for everyone. it is all within the details of understanding the details that makes it a medicine or a poison. That is with everything. Not just buttermilk.

    • Buttermilk is not to be consumed in the early summer and autumn? On other places on your blog you say it should not be consumed in late summer, aswell as just “summer”. I’m a bit confused..

    • I’m trying to understand why takra is not to be taken in late summer so I’m trying to read the whole article here thoroughly.

      It’s proparbly nitpicking but I found that takra devoid of butter is indicated for: “MandataMa Agni (poorest digestive capacity), Adhama bala (least body strength), increased Kapha dosha”

      and when half of the fat is removed it is indicated for:
      “MandataRa Agni (poorest digestive capacity), Madhyama bala (moderate strength), increased Pitta dosha”

      One says M and one says R. Is this a spelling mistake? Or when spelled with an M it means that digestion is even weaker compared to when it’s written with an R?

    • I’m trying to figure out why it’s not ok to have takra in late summer so I’ve been trying to thoroughly read this page and in doing so I noticed Mandatama is written with an M in the first. and with an R in the second while the translations say the same.

      “Churned curd from which fat is completely removed

      Mandatama Agni (poorest digestive capacity), Adhama bala(least body strength), increased Kapha dosha”

      “Churned curd from which half of the fat is removed:

      Mandatara Agni (poorest digestive capacity), Madhyama bala (moderate strength), increased Pitta dosha”

      Is it so that the M in the word indicates that it is even worse then when written as Mandatara with an R? Basically meaning

      Manda Agni = poor digestive capacity.

      Mandatara Agni = poorer digestive capacity than Manda Agni

      Mandatama Agni = poorer than Mandatara Agni/poorest digestive capacity or in other words…. fat-wise Ruksha Takra cannot be made lighter because it is devoid of it.

    • replying to Jesse on suffixes for comparative and superlative. Its good to know some sanskrit rules if you will continue your study. For now, thise one from wikipedia (it works most times!)
      The secondary suffixes of comparison are -taraḥ, ā, am for comparative and -tamaḥ, ā, am for superlative. They are appended to the inflectional base, with no modification of the stem

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  7. Hi,

    I have high pitta dosha.I am trying to reduce the heat in my body by avoiding sour foods.Confused by the articles on buttermilk in google.As per this article,Curd with a lot of water (100%) is a cooling one but with 25% is warming.Could you clarify ,is it ok to have buttermilk.

    Also ,is brown rice ok because I have seen quite different views.Some say it increases pitta and others say its fine.

    Thanks Sir.

  8. I am suffering from IBS, and i cannot take dairy products, whenever i take i get loose motions, this happens with curd, milk, butter milk and lassi. all sort of products, i know that chaach is the only effective way to heal IBS but it creates problem for me, it gives gas and loose motions to me, i even remove all sort of butter from it but it still creates problem. I am already on ayurvedic treatment where my doc is giving me Kutaj and Vatsakadi vadi. What to do?

    • Nitesh,

      Thanks for your comment and question.
      I do not have a proper intake or any information to really say anything, specially if you are already under treatment.

      Takra is grahi, so having it create loose motions is highly unlikely. I would have to ask if you are making it properly and what that is?

      Also there are herbs to be added to it that will help as well.

      What else are you doing besides taking these herbs that you mentioned?

  9. namskar,
    I am facing lot of problems with short breathing, constipation, heavy weakness. Doctors have diagnosis as vit B 12 difficiency. Now asthama is detected. is all happening due to digestion problems. Can I use curd or buttermilk to get some better resuls.

    • Yogesh,
      Appreciate the reaching out but the seriousness of your situation requires diagnosis, get it from a doctor one on one in person and not over the net. Yes, curd could actually help the respiratory problems possibly. Your asking me to answer a question without having enough information too, understand that k? The whole health history needs to be understood as well as everything that is going on right now.
      I could name hundreds of things that could possibly help like even pippalimula but is it going to be what is needed or is it actually going to harm because other stuff is going on.

  10. Hi, I’ve been suffering from ibs for past 8 years, last year i was diagnosed with strictures in ileum and ileocecal valve, my doctor thought it was crohn’s disease but it was negative and instead i was diagnosed wiyh sibo. I was gived antibiotics which totallu cured my digestive problems a d i could eat anything, but now the symptoms have returned and antibiotics aren’t working anymore. I’ve been to a ayurvedic practitioner who said I’ve vataja grahani and he gave me meds for a month but it made no difference. Now after doing a lot of research related to sibo and takra chikitsa I’ve concluded to stay on a liquid diet for 7 to 10 days and takefreahly made takra only. Along with oregano oil for bacterial infection.

    Could u suggest if taking buttermilk for a week would help with my situation. And what else i can take for bacterial infection and mand agni. I would really appreciate your help.

    • I would advise not blending or following different realms of knowledge. If your going to do the takra, do not do the oregano oil.
      And antibiotics obviously did not cure anything, I hope you see that.

      If you want to work with me that is fine, I do one on one sessions. This is not a free advice clinic. Thx.

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  12. hey! i have a vata imbalance and some digestion weakness, my ayurvedic doctor recommended drinking buttermilk(1/3 yogurt and 1 water) right after lunch, does that make sense? also, i buy organic goat yogurt and the drink is very sour(i add cumin and mint) is that ok?
    thanks a lot!

    • Hi.
      Can’t give a response except to say in general it sounds fine. Would need to know more of what vata imbalance and weak digestion means. Were you instructed to use goat yogurt and add cumin and mint?
      Takra would be different as per season, as per individual and if it is being used specific per disease.

  13. Hi. I have imbalance of all three doshas with pitta and vata predominance. My body in general is typical pitta type. How should I make my buttermilk for the same. I have poor digestion, acidity and too much bloating problem.

    • Ankur, if you read the disclaimer, you will find that free advice is not on this blog because from your question, there is not enough information, also, this is my profession. You are welcome to do an intake with me.

  14. Good Afternoon,
    maybe my english is not good enough but reading the preparation guidance for buttermilk i understand in the chapter
    “How to make it”
    §1/…. churning the curd in a vessel by adding 1/4th to 1/2 parts of water (= dilute e.g. 100g (/or ml ?) with 25g … 50g water)

    §2/ …. amount (1/5th) fresh whole yogurt and add it to 4/5th water (= dilute 20g yoghurt/curd with 80g water)

    For me §2 is the other way round or am I completely mistaken?

    The other thing was “ghola”: this is simply churned yoghurt? The positive effect comes from churning compared to unchurned yoghurt?

    Happy to get an answer!


  15. Namaste Sir,
    Love your blog and comments. At one point in your article you introduced the concept of sweet yogurt alongside sour yogurt. Kindly explain what you mean by each. Thank you.

    • Welcome to the blog. I’m glad that you enjoy.
      Sweet yogurt would be fresh yogurt that you would have to make yourself. Yogurt you were purchasing the store would be sour because it’s aged more. There’s quite a difference. Yogurt that is left out for sometime gets more and more sour very quickly. You can simply do this yourself to experience the difference. They have quite different qualities to them. The tastes will change the qualities.

  16. Thank you for your reply. This sentence captivates me: “When taken in the correct quantity, takra cleanses the channels of circulation (srotas), as a result of which rasa, the end product of digestion of food, reaches the tissues properly. It creates proper nourishment, strength, and complexion. It cures one hundred diseases.” Please do tell us what is the correct quantity to achieve this miracle?

    Also, am i correct to think that this should not be taken in evening and during certain times of year like curds, or is it suitable at all times?

    Really, my mind is blown by the concept of takra being so healing. Thank you.

    • Hi.
      In general, have a regular size cup of it with meals, room temp.
      Briefly, as I can explain…..
      There is a great vastness to all this knowledge.
      First, A substance that is healing like this can as easily destroy. Everything is like this. Simply, you can drown from drinking water. You will find lots written about water being the most healing substance in books and on the web, yet for a diabetic water is deadly.

      The verses from the text go into explaining things to give the importance or the strength of such things. Nothing by itself is going to do this or if everything else is contrary to the healing process there is not something to take that will do anything negligible. This is something to really hear and take in deeply. The example is using the western paradigm. The western world has grown up on taking a pill given from the doctor to get over a malady. There is no real understanding of why the illness is there in the first place in which one has created by their own doing. Just take something and this is going to make everything better. Everything in that western context is this. The science supports it as well. The culture promotes then its consumerism in needing to take something or buy something to be something else; whatever is being promised. Yet nothing actually works because the life, the actions, the intake (and I mean sensory as well) all have to coincide to the correct direction or path. And this western way has grown now in India as well as Western medicine is prefered over Ayurveda most everywhere. No time to take responsibility, no desire to as well. Used to have the knowledge but now it is pretty much lost.

      So yes, the texts say that Indra is jealous of humans because he has the immortal nectar to drink but humans get takra. It is a sentence marked by hyperbole. But yet it is not. This is why ayurveda states that every poison is amrit in the hands of the wise and every medicine is a poison in the hands of fools.
      In evening it can be taken with food, it is not like curd.

      In general, because of its qualities, it does miraculous sounding things. Simply put, it is vata anulomik which means it keeps vata moving in the proper direction. It cleanses the channels while its previous manifestation before the churning, curd, clogs channels. And a lot more.

    • Welcome. There is actually a ton more detail. Anything that is done to a substance adds to it is some way. Taking a mineral and turning it to ash and used as a medicine. Just an example. A very deep and beautiful science Ayurveda is.

  17. I have had this happen multiple times now: after making yoghurt from the yoghurt that was made from the day before, which in turn was made from the yoghurt of the day before that, etc… it sometimes gets a funny taste. Almost cheesy and in my experience defintely not ok. I used to think fridges shouldnt ever be used, so keeping my yoghurt out at night and then forgetting to take it out of the sunlight during the day, made it taste the same (but worse), lol.
    A friend if mine (another client of yours) had the same thing happen, but kept drinking it. Proparbly because it crept in gradually he hadnt noticed. I now have the same. Made into buttermilk and with misri and rose petals its not even noticable but I really dislike the smell of this yoghurt and its not like its going away by using it as a starter for new yoghurt so im off to the store for some “fresh” starter. I wonder why and how this happens. Yuck. Lol.

    • Haha. Ofcourse! Thats what I do now, refridgerating them. That was just an example of when I first experienced that weird taste. That was when I misinterpretated you and thought fridges were 100% no go zone. The taste is not a sourness. Its something different and happens in the fridge from time to time. But it happens rarely.

    • Thanks thats awesome.

      No I do not. I wasnt aware of their existence.
      They keep vegetables cool in the natural coldness of the underground. It will be somewhat moist (yet protected from excessive moisture like rain to prevent rot ) which is what youd want for vegetables, and there is somewhat of an inflow of fresh air compared to a closed off fridge. One is part of nature. The other is an elecrically induced manmade “eco”system. The earth is an isolator which will not only cool in summer but also warm in winter, moisten in summer, dry in winter. And all that without elecricity. Haha.

      Mud pots, depending on how hot they have been baked in the oven, can respirate and absorb moisture. The culture of the yoghurt will sit in its pores. According to the below, it is what is/was used to make yoghurt in India. On your blog you say to put ghee in a non toxic ceramic container. I also remember reading ghee can/should be stored underground to age it (like the 100 year old ghee). Maybe the earth of the pot functions as a coolant in making curd, preventing it from going sour to quickly. Would have to read more :). Its earth element. So is glass, but less interactive.

      “In the MB method, also known as the desi method, sour whole raw milk is churned to butter. The butter is then converted to ghee (Munro et al., 1992;podmore,1994). The MB method, as applied in the homes of india, involves the souring of raw milk in earthenware vessels which have been used previously as a milk container, and which contain an inoculum of bacteria within pores of the wall. After addition of more milk over successive days, the fermented milk is churned to butter. The butter is then boiled in an open pan to allow evaporation of the water without charring the proteins. The ghee is transferred while hot and stored in earthen vessels (Munro et al., 1992)..”


      I use a glass container with metal-plastic lid. I tend to close it real tight too. No fresh air. No contact with the outside. A little world on its own inside a very cold other world of its own.

      Ill buy this one and see what happens: https://www.ekirana.nl/clay-pot-with-lid.html

      My mother has studied ceramics. Maybe she can help me out too.

      Might build myself a miniture backyard root cellar. Hehe.

      Thanks again.

  18. Sir, i am suffering from ulcerative colitis since 2018, but no bleeding in my stools for 2 months now i am taking buttermilk 2-2.5 ltrs per day along with boiled potatos, papaya, pomegrate because in ayurveda takrakalpa is best treatment for ulcerative colitis, plz guide me to follow this process

    • Varsha,
      First….. grow some respect. You need to totally look in the mirror and see yourself. You have just gone on the internet and now asked someone to help you for free.
      I am not your monkey that will jump when you say to jump.

      If you notice, all over this blog it says over and over to not ask for personal medical advice.

      This, in general is why I have quit practicing. Frankly speaking, you people have no damn conscience at all.

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