SRI PARASHARA SMRITHI ADHYAYA-1 SRI GANESHAYA NAMAHA Now to begin. — On the top of the snowy hill, in the hermitage of the Devadaru grove, the Rishis of yore inter- rogated Vyasa, who was seated, rapt in thought. 2. Expound, O son of Satyavati ! the law, which is for the good of mankind, in the present Kali age; and the practice of purification, such as it ought to be. 3. Hearing the above saying of the Rishis, (he) the adept 4n the Veda and the Smriti, and exceedingly bright, like a a kindled fire or the sun, who was attended by his pupils, said in reply, 4. ” I have not the knowledge of the whole of the truth. How can I venture to expound the law ? It is our father who should be asked.” Thus said Vyasa, the son. 5. 6, 7. Then all those Rishis, desirous to obtain correct law, proceeded, under the lead of the Rishi Vyasa, to the Badrika hermitage, (a spot) crowded with various trees, beautified by flowers and fruits, diversified by rivers and rills, ornamented with holy bathing-places, resonant with the voice of beasts and birds, studded with temples, and enlivened by the dance and music of Yakshas, Gandharvas and Siddas 8 & 9. There, Vyasa, accompanied by the Rishis, by putting together both his palms and by cir cum ambulation, obeisances and laudatory speeches, paid respects to Parasara, the son of Shakti, seated at his ease in the midst of an assemblage of Rishis, and surrounded by a host of Munis of the highest rank. 10. Now, with a gladdened heart, the great Muni Parasara, pre-eminent among Munis, thus spoke without rising from his seat, ” Tell(me) about your safe arrival.” 11 to 15. Vyasa having said ” (All are) well,” thus interrogated him : ” If thou art aware of my reverence (for thee), or from affection, O thou affectionate to persons revering thee ! expound the law to me, for I am, father, an object of kindness to thee. The rules of law expounded by Manu have been heard by me, and those by Vasishtha and by Kasyapa, and by Garga and by Gautama and by Usanas ; the laws of Atri and Vishnu and Samvarta and Daksha and Angira and Shatatapa and Harita and Yajnavalkya, and Katyayana and Prachetas and Apastamba ; and the laws of Shankha and Likhita, 16. ” All these (laws) have been heard (by me as they were) expounded by thee ; they embody the sense of the veda ; (they) have not been forgotten by me. (They are) the laws for the four ages, the Krita, the Treta, and the rest, forming parts of this Manvantara. 17. ” All laws arose in the Krita age ; all have vanished in the Kali age. Expound a part of the rules of conduct fit for the four castes, such as are common (to all). 18 & 19. ” Likewise, thou proficient in the nature of law, expound in detail, both in its manifest and in its recondite forms, the law to be followed by those among all the four castes who are skilled in the knowledge of law.” At the end of the words of Vyasa, Parasara the chief of Munis, in detail expounds the law (as) settled, both in the manifest and in the recondite forms. ” Listen, my son, and let the Munis also hear.” 20. ” In each Kalpa (the deities) Brahma and “Vishnu and Shiva, and the expounders of the Veda, the Smrithis invariably perish, and are born again. 21. ” The author of the Veda there is none ; (he) the four- faced (God), at each succeeding revolution of a Kalpa, re- calls to mind the Veda ; and so does Manu remember the law (at each succeeding revolution of a Kalpa). 22. ” In conformity to the character of the age, the rules of law (suitable) for men differ from age to age. The rules for the Krita differ from the Treta rules ; the Dvapara laws are not identical with the Kali rules. 23. ” Self-mortification is the rule in the Krita age ; knowledge is said (to be the same) in the Treta ; in the Dvapara, (they) say sacrifice (to the gods to be) the sole (rule) ; and charity alone in the Kali age. 24. ” For the Krita are suited the laws of Manu ; for the Treta, those by Gautama (are) prescribed ; for the Dvapara those by Shank and Likhita ; for the Kali, those by Parasara are prescribed. 25. ” In the Krita, one should quit a country itself ; one should quit a village in the Treta ; in the Dvapara (one should shun) only the particular family ; but in the Kali, one should shun the perpetrator alone (of an offence). 26. ” In the Krita sin is incurred by one who converses (with a sinner) ; in the Treta by one who touches (the sinful man) ; in the Dvapara by taking the sinner’s food ; in the Kali by a (sinful) act (alone). 27. ” A curse in the Krita takes effect the moment it is littered ; in the Treta (it does so) in ten days’ time ; in the Dvapara, in the course of a single month ; in the Kali, how- ever, it takes a year. 28. *’ In the Krita (the donor himself) comes up to (the donee) and makes the gift ; in each succeeding Treta age, (the donee) is invited and the gift is made ; in the Dvapara, the gift is made to one who asks for it ; in the Kali, how- ever, gifts are made in exchange for service done. 29. ” Excellent is the gift, made on coming to the donee’s side ; the gift after invitation is of the middling kind ; gift to a suitor is of a low character ; but gift for service (rendered) is fruitless. 30 & 31. “Religion has been overthrown by irreligion ; and truth indeed by that which is false ; kings have been overpowered by thieves ; males have been subdued by females ; the worship of fire is dying out ; respect to superiors is ceasing to be seen ; and maidens are becoming mothers : this is what invariably happens in the age of Kali. 32. ” Life in the Krita has its seat in the bones ; in the Treta it has its seat in the flesh ; in the Dvapara the blood is the seat of life ; in the Kali, however, life is dependent upon food and the like. 33. ” Special are the rules of conduct for each cyclical age ; and the regenerate castes are guided by the rules that govern the age ; no censure (therefore) can attach to them ; for the regenerates conform to the spirit of the age.” 34. The saints have explained what other capabilities are special for each particular age. And the expiation pre- scribed by Parasara too is practiced (in actual life). 35. ” I shall this very day bring to my remembrance the whole of the same, und shall propound it to you. Let the leaders of the saints (literally the bull-like saints) listen to the approved law, which should be followed by a society observing the rule of castes.”” 36. Holy is the work composed by Parasara; it leads . to well-being and destroys sins ; properly construed, it settles the duties of the Brahman caste, and establishes the religion of all the rest. 37. A blameless life, that fosters righteousness, is what is proper for all the four castes. Righteousness turns its back to those whose bodies are defiled by a blamable life. 38. A Brahman, who is given to observe the six duties of his caste, who worships the deities and hospitably receives the guests ; whose meals consist of what remains after (daily) offerings made (on the fire), has never to suffer from misery or want. 39. Ablution and prayer, inaudible recitation (of sacred words), burnt- offerings, the worship of gods, hospitality to guests unexpectedly come, and offerings made in the name of the Visvadevam, — these are the six duties to be performed every day, 40. When a Brahman has performed the duty of offering to the Visvadevam, if an unexpected guest arrives, — be he a favourite, be he an object of hate, be he a dunce, be he a learned man — he is the very bridge for crossing over to the seats of bliss. 41. He should be considered as a true unexpected guest, who has come over from afar, fatigued in body, after the performance of the rite for the Visvadevam ; — one arrived prior thereto is not an unexpected guest. 42. Never should one belonging to the selfsame village be accepted as an unexpected guest. His name atithi (lit., having no date fixed) arises from the fact of his having arrived unexpectedly. 43. To an unexpected guest arrived at the house, one should address words of welcome ; and he should be honor ed with the offer of a seat, and of water for washing his feet. 44. The householder should gladden the guest by showing him respect, by the offer of food accompanied with pleasant words ;”^ and by following him (for some little distance), when he departs (from the house of the host). 45. Where a guest goes back from a person’s house, ‘ — his hope of a welcome unfulfilled, — the forefathers of the householder do not eat, during the period of ten years and five. 46. Where a guest is disappointed in his hopes — useless are the burnt-offerings made by the host, although he may burn a thousand loads of wood and a hundred jars of ghee. 47. The seed should be sown on excellent soil ; wealth should be bestowed on a worthy recipient ; for what is sown on excellent soil, — what is bestowed on a worthy recipient — is never lost, 48. (A guest) should not be asked his family or his clan ; [Lit., his gotra] he should not be questioned as to learning or knowledge. [But the host] should take him to be a god himself ; for, in him are united all the gods. 49. Fresh is a Brahman who lives a strictly religious life ; and similarly fresh is an unexpected guest ; (and also) he who delights in a constant study of the Veda ; these three are fresh from day to day. [By ‘fresh’ seems to be meant that ‘ one never should weary of them ; these three should be always acceptable and welcome’.] 50. At the hour of the offering for the Visvadevam, if a religious mendicant arrives at the house — one should take a portion from the intended offering to the visvadevas, — should give it as alms, and as a parting gift. [Lit. should dismiss the mendicant, having given the alms.] 51. The religious mendicant, and the religious student, these two are the lords of the food that has been cooked. Giving them no food, and eating himself, one should observe (as a penance) the lunar fast. * Lit. with pleasant enquiries, I. e., whether any more food would be welcome to the guest, and so forth. [The ‘lunar fast,’ called the * Chandrayana,’ consists in the re- duction of a mouthful every succeeding day, till on the day of the full moon the meal is reduced to a single mouthful.] 52. To the mendicant and the student, one should give three alms in all ; then he may give at his option as much as his wealth permits. 53. He should pour water on the mendicant’s palm ; then he should place the alms upon his hand ; and water again. The alms so given equal the Meru in bulk ; the water is comparable to the ocean itself. [The meaning is : Such alms are as efficacious in point of religious merit as if he had given a quantity equal in bulk to the mountain Meru, — the golden mountain on the top of which is situated Indra’s heaven.] 54. If an unexpected guest has got an umbrella and a horse ; he should be welcomed without hesitation ; (for by doing so) the householder goes to the place of Indra, where he mounts on elephants and enjoys riches. 55. If a fault be committed in performing the rite for the Visvadevam, the fault is repaired by (proper hospitality to) a religious mendicant ; if a fault, however, be committed with regard to that hospitality, it is not repaired by the rite for the Visvadevam. 56. The regenerate men who eat their meals, not having performed the rite for the Visvadevam, are born as crows ; their food by no means should be partaken.    57. Those despicable members of the regenerate caste, who eat their meals, not having performed the rite for the Visvadevam — they all should be taken as abortive beings and they fall into an impure hell.  58. Those who do not perform the rite for the Visvadevam, or the rite of hospitably receiving guests, — they all are destined to go to hell, and in the next existence are born as crows.   59. To eat one’s meals with his head wrapped round, or with his face towards the south, or with his hand on his left foot, or while he is standing up — is to imitate the manners of the Rakshasa class of beings.    60.The king must punish the village where brahmanas take alms without doing austerities and vedic study as it is a theft.    61. A king of the Kshatriya caste should arm himself,and have his troops ; should protect his people ; should overcome the forces of a hostile king ; and rule the State in the way prescribed by law.  62.Whether it be a robber, or a Chandala (the lowest of all the castes), or an enemy, or a parricide, — any one arrived at the time of the rite for the Visvadevam, is to be welcom- ed as a guest, who is like a bridge for crossing over to the seats of bliss.   63. To invest money on interest, to be a jeweller, to tend cattle, tillage and trade, — these are declared as occupations for the Vaisya caste,   64. The highest virtue for a Shoodra is to serve the members of the regenerate castes. Fruitless for him is everything else that he may do.  65. Salt, honey and oil, curded milk, whey, and milk all these are not polluted by the touch of persons of the Shoodra caste.Shoodra may sell these to all the castes.  66.By selling Wine and meat,by consuming prohibited foods,cohabiting with prostitutes a shoodra falls from his caste.   67. By drinking the milk of a tawny cow, by cohabiting with a woman of the Brahman caste, by discussing the sense of the words of the Veda,a Shoodra becomes a Chandala (Lowest sect)   Here ends the First Chapter of Parasara. SECOND CHAPTER DUTIES OF HOUSEHOLDER: 1. 2. Now, I shall explain, conformably to what Parasara formerly propounded, the law relating to the duties and observances prescribed for a householder, in the age of Kali ; also the rules of conduct, which, being common to all, are suited to the four castes and stages of life, so far as they are able to follow. A Brahman who regularly performs the six ceremonies, may also betake himself to agriculture. [The six ceremonies have been enumerated in ch. I., S’loka 39. Madhava says that the causal form ‘ karayet,’ in connection with the practice of agriculture allowed in the Kali to the priestly class, has a special meaning : — he says that a Brahmana must employ plough- men of the lower caste in carrying on his agricultural operations ; he is not permitted himself to hold the plough.] 3. An ox that is hungry, or thirsty, or fatigued, should not be harnessed (to a plough) . A bull wanting in a limb, or diseased, or impotent, should not, by a Brahman, be made to work. 4. An able-bodied bull, free from disease, well-fed and hearty, and not impotent, should be made to work for half the day. Then should one give the bull a wash. 5. Then the Brahman should perform the ceremony of inaudibly reciting the sacred word, the worship of gods, the offering on the fire ; and likewise should he practice the study of the sacred works. Thereafter should he feed one or two or three or four religious mendicants of the Brahman caste. [The religious mendicants, called the ‘ Snatakas ‘ in the original, are said by Madhava to be of nine classes.] 6. With the paddy cultivated by himself, or acquired from a field cultivated on his behalf, he should offer the five sacrifices (enjoined in the works on Smriti) ; and should likewise be engaged in celebrating the sacrificial rites, such as the Veda prescribes. [The five sacrifices are mentioned by Manu in eh. 3, sl. 70.] 7. Sesum seeds, or milk, or honey, or butter, should never be sold ; they may be bartered for equal quantities of paddy. The sale of grass or wood, or the like, is, for a Brahman, a similar means of living. 8. What sin a fisherman incurs in the course of one full year, — the same is incurred by the driver of a plough- share made of iron in the course of a single day. 9. A hunter who makes his living by killing beasts ; one who lives by ensnaring them ; a fisherman and a fowler ; as also an agriculturist who makes no gifts (of paddy) :-— all these five incur the same identical sin. 10. By cutting trees, by rending the earth, and by Destroying insects and worms, what sin is incurred by a tiller of the soil is removed by the sacrifice on the threshing- floor. [The sacrifice on the threshing floor consists of gifts of paddy at that place.] 11. He who refrains from making gifts to Brahmans, when he stands at the foot of the heaped-up paddy, is a thief ; he is the most wicked of all possible sinners ; he should be proclaimed as a Brahman-killer. 12. By making a gift of one-sixth part to the sovereign of the land, one twenty-first for the sake of the gods, and one-thirtieth to the Brahman caste, one is freed from all sins. 13. A Kshatriya, likewise, may practice tillage, honoring the gods and the Brahman caste. A 24. For those who died in the course of doing service Vaisya or Shoodra should always take to agriculture, practice arts, and follow trade. 14. Abandoning the service of the regenerate castes, the Shoodras who betake to improper occupations become short-lived beings, and undoubtedly go to hell. 15. This is the eternal rule of life for all the four castes. Here ends the Second Chapter of the Institutes of Parasara. END OF SECOND CHAPTER THIRD CHAPTER. Impurity caused by birth and death: 1. Now I shall speak of the term of impurity resulting on the occurrence of a birth, or a death. Brahmans in three days become pure again, when a relative has died, or has been born. 2. A Kshatriya recovers purity in twelve days ; a Vaisya, when fifteen days have passed ; a Shoodra, after the lapse of a month ; this is conformable to what Parasara has said. 3. So far as the performance of worship is concerned, a Brahman’s corporeal frame is (always) held in purity. In the case of pollution by a birth, it is allowable to touch the body of a Brahman who has been polluted by such a cause. [Madhava says that the word * worship,’ upasana in the original, is meant for ‘ the daily prayers and the burnt-offerings.’ The whole text means that a relative’s birth or death does not so far ill effect a Brahman with impurity- as to unfit him for performing his daily worship ; and on the birth of a relative to a Brahman, he does not become impure to the extent of being unfit to be touched.] 4. On the occasion of a birth, a Brahman recovers purity in ten days ; a Kshatriya does so in twelve days ; a vaishya at the expiry of fifteen days ; and the purification of a Shoodra takes a month. [Madhava says that this rule applies to the case where a Sapinda has been born ; while the rule of three days applies where a Sama- nodaka, a more distant relative than a Sapinda, has been born.] 5. A Brahman who has studied the Veda, and likewise keeps the sacred household fire, is restored to purity in a single day ; he who has the knowledge of the Veda alone will recover purity in three days ; while he who is without either the Veda or the fire, will remain impure till ten days are over. 6. A Brahman who has never received the purificatory rites prescribed from the day of birth, who neglects to perform the threefold daily prayers(sandhya), who is a Brahman in name alone, — must observe ten days of impurity on account of a birth. 7. If the relatives are sprang from the same progenitor, (but of a higher caste), and from a mother of an inferior caste, the above rule of impurity should be followed by them, when either a birth or a death has taken place. [In translating this shloka, I have followed Madhava ; but the text of the Rishi is not in its obvious and natural sense capable of that interpretation.] 8. The aforesaid impurity extends as far as three ances- tors. With the fourth terminates the Sapinda relationship ; and so with the fifth born in the same family, (and with the rest). 9. If the common ancestor be the fourth in ascent, then the impurity is for ten days ; in the fifth generation, six nights constitute the period thereof ; in the sixth, the purity comes back when four days have passed ; but in the seventh, in three days’ time. 10. If the death has happened by fall from a precipice, or in a country other than the native land, or if it be an infant which has died, or an anchorite who had renounced the world, — then the relatives are purified in the course of that very day. 11. If information arrives that a person of the same family has died in a country other than his native land, — then the rule of three days or of one day does not obtain ; then the relatives are purified by bathing themselves on that very day. 12. For infants whose teeth had yet to grow, and for such as had an abortive birth, no cremation is ordained, nor any term of impurity, nor libation of water. 13. If the child should perish, while yet in the womb, or should be miscarried, — then the woman has an impurity of as many days, as would be equal to the number of months the child had been in the womb. 14. An abortion taking place before four months are past, is to be called only an ‘ oozing ‘ of the womb (miscarriage) it is named a ‘ fall ‘ (or abortion) when happening in the fifth month, or in the sixth ; thereafter it is called a parturition. And then for the period of ten days should the impurity last. 15. If an infant has died after teething, or if he has died before the growth of his teeth, but after the performance of tonsure upon him, — then for him crema- tion is prescribed, and his relatives are impure for full three nights. 16. From birth till the commencement of teething, im- purity ceases on the very day of death ; up to tonsure, impurity lasts for a single night ; it lasts three nights until the investiture with the sacred thread ; thenceforward, the term of impurity is full ten nights. 17. A person in his pupilage, and those in whose house offerings are regularly made on the fire ; these are not affected with impurity for birth, provided they refrain from coming into contact. 20. A person observing a religious vow, a person purified by being engaged in some sacrificial rite, one of a re- generate caste who has set up a sacred fire in his house, and a person whose services are in requisition by the king — these, and a sovereign, have no impurity on account of birth. 18. Nothing but contact can cause to a Brahman an impure state, — whether it be on account of a birth or a death. To one refraining from all contact, there is no impurity, either for birth or for death. Artists and artisans, physicians, barbers, slaves, male or female, kings, and Brahmans who lead a sancti- fied religious life, — all these are purified without a moment’s delay. A person observing a religious vow, a person purified by being engaged in some sacrificial rite, one of a re- generate caste who has set up a sacred fire in his house, and a person whose services are in requisition by the king — these, and a sovereign, have no impurity on account of birth. 21. A person, who is about to be engaged in a battle, or who has made preparations for making a gift, or who is in distress, or a Brahman who has been invited to partake a religious feast — these become pure then and there ; — so it has been ordained by the saints, — -as pure as if they had observed the full and prescribed term (of purification). 22. If a householder, on the occasion of a birth, abso- lutely refrains from all contact, — then the mother becomes pure in ten days, while a plunge in the water will render the father pure. 23. Impurity on the ground of death affects all relatives in the same way ; but that for birth affects only the father and the mother; that on the ground of birth affects only the mother ; the father becomes pure by washing himself. [Madhava explains this text as follows : — So far as incompetency to perforin religious rites is concerned, all kinsfolk, whether parents or others, are affected in the same way, if a death occurs. But unfit, ness for being touched is anothter effect of impurity. This is confined solely to the parents, when there is a birth. Again, the mother remains unfit for being touched till the tenth day, while the father remains so till he takes a wash.] A brahmana is impure if he touches his wife who gives birth to a child eventhough he may be well versed with the six angas of the veda. 25. These two are destined to reach the very highest of all regions, having penetrated through the solar orb ; — namely, a mendicant who has practised Yoga, and a soldier who has been killed, fighting with his face towards the foes. Objects are pure eventhough if impurity raises due to birth in marriage or yagyas.They are considered pure. For those who died in the course of doing service to the Brahman caste, or while rescuing women, or cows being carried away by force, or in battles, — the impurity lasts only for a single night. 25. These two are destined to reach the very highest of all regions, having penetrated through the solar orb ; — namely, a mendicant who has practised Yoga, and a soldier who has been killed, fighting with his face towards the foes. 26. Wherever a hero is killed, being surrounded by a number of foes, he reaches regions of undying bliss, — pro- vided he utters no cowardly words. The sun trembles from his place on seeing a brahmana who has taken sanyasa.This sanyasi pierces the solar orb and reaches the ultimate position of brahman. 27. He who comes forward to protect, when the fighting forces have been routed and are running away on all sides —wins the fruits of a well-performed sacrificial yagya rite. Celestial damsels seize for themselves, and take delight with the hero, whose body is wounded or cut by arrows, clubs, or maces. Thousands of celestial damsels, rush forward in a hurry towards a hero killed in battle, each proclaiming, * He is my lord, he is mine.’ The regions which Brahman aspirants after heavenly bliss reach by performing many sacrificial rites, and by austerities of various forms, — the same seats of bliss are attained in an instant’s time by valorous men, who meet their death while blamelessly fighting on a field of battle. If victorious, wealth is won ; if death results, beauti- ful women fall to his share ; since this corporeal frame is liable to perish in an instant’s time, why should we be shy of meeting death on a field of battle ? If blood oozes out from the forehead,’while fighting, and enters the mouth — that is on a par with a drink of the soma juice, for a fight is a religious rite properly performed : so it has been represented by the saints. Those excellent Brahmans, who carry the corpse of a friendless Brahman, gain, at every step they take, one by one, all the objects for which a sacrifice is performed. Blessed is their deed. No evil happens to them ; nor do they incur a sin. By plunging in water, they then and there are freed from impurity. For (the impurity caused by) carrying to the cremation ground and cremating the corpse of a superior Brahman who has departed this life, without a relative or a friend at his side, — one becomes pure by practising a single Pranayama. [According to Manu, to repeat the Gayatri thrice, while balding I the breath, is called a pranayama.] For voluntarily following a corpse, whether it be that of an agnate or not, — washing with the clothing on, touching the fire, and eating clarified butter, — these are the means of purifying one’s self. Where a Brahman from ignorance follows the corpse of one who belongs to the military caste, he becomes im- pure for a single night, and purifies himself by eating the fivefold products of a cow. [These are, milk, curd, clarified butter, cow’s urine and cowdung.] If a Brahman, from ignorance, follows the corpse of a person of the Vaisya caste, he should observe impurity for full two nights, and should then practice six Pranayamas. If a Brahman, with a feeble knowledge of law, should follow a corpse of the Shoodra caste, while the same is being carried to the burning-ground, he shall become impure for full three nights. When the period of three nights is complete, he should repair to a river that falls into the sea ; there a hun- dred Pranayamas are to be practised by him ; hereafter he eats clarified butter, and restores him to purity again. When the Shoodras have finished all the obsequial rites, and have come to the water’s side, then they may be follow- ed by persons of the regenerate caste. This law has pre- vailed from ancient times. [Madhava says that the meaning is not ‘coming to the water’s side ‘ — but * when they have ceased to offer libations of water. ‘] End of third chapter of Parasara. CHAPTER IV. VARIOUS KINDS OF EXPIATION RITES: 1. Whether from excessive pride, excessive wrath, or from affection, or from fear, should a man or a woman hang one’s self, — then this is the destiny that awaits him or her. 2. He or she sinks into a region utterly dark, and filled to the brink with pus and blood ; that torment is suffered for sixty thousand years. 3. For such a being there should be no impurity, no libation of water, no cremation, nor any shedding of tears. 4. Those who carry the corpse or set it on fire, or cut the rope wherewith the person hanged himself or herself, must purify themselves by a Taptakrichchhra ; so has Prajapati declared the law to be. [Taptakrichchhra is a sort of penance; the person observing it must live on clarified butter, milk, and hot water, three days each ; and must inhale hot air for three days.] 5 and 6. The Brahmans who touch the corpse of a per- son killed by cows or bulls, or of one who hanged himself, or of one whose death was caused by a person of the Brahman caste; and those who carry the corpse, or set fire to it; or those other persons who follow the corpse ; and also those who cut down the rope ; all should purify themselves by a Taptakrichchhra ; and then a number of Brahmans should be fed by them. By way of a gratuity they should give to a Brahman, a cow accompanied by a bull able to draw a cart. Hot water should be drunk for three days , hot milk for three ; hot ghee for three ; and air should be the sole subsistence for the next three days. Seven palas (a pala = 4 tolas) is the quantity of water to be drunk ; three palas that of the milk to be drunk ; a single ‘ pala is the measure of the ghee. This rule governs the penance Taptakfichchhra If a Brahman associates with persons degraded by sin, but has been forced to do so against his wish, for five, or ten, or full twelve days ; or for half a month, or a month ; or for a couple of months ; or for half a year, or for one complete year ; at the expiration of the term he becomes degraded as they. He should fast three days, if the association has ended in the first fortnight ; if in the second, the penance should be a Krichchhra ; (a sort of penance extending over twelve continuous days, and consisting in partial or absolute fasts) ; if in the third fortnight, the penance should be a Santapana-krichchhra ; if in the fourth fortnight, the penance is a fast for full ten days ; if in the fifth fortnight, the fast must be for full twelve days; if in the sixth fortnight, a single Chandrayana is the penance; if in the seventh, a double Chandrayana; if in the eighth, he should, for the sake of purity, observe a Krichchhra extending over full six months. As many gold coins must the gratuity be, as there are fortnights in the period the association lasts. [A gratuity,dakshina, is the money gifted to a Brahmana, without which no religious observance has efficacy.] To be purified observe krichhra for six months.Atleast in order of a paksha(15 days) with gift of gold. If a woman meets not her lord, on the day that her monthly courses stop, — she after death goes to hell, — and becomes a widow in repeated births. If the husband meets not his wife on the day that her monthly courses cease, and she be near at hand, he incurs the awful sin of having killed a foetus. There is not the slightest doubt herein. If a woman despises her husband, because he being either poor, or diseased, or a dunce, — she, after death, is born a bitch, or a sow, again and again. If a woman, during her husband’s life, observes a religious vow which involves a fast,that woman thereby shortens her husband’s life, and after death goes to hell. If a woman performs a religious rite, without taking her husband’s consent, it is the Rakshasas who appropriate the whole of that religious rite. This is in conformity to what Manu has said. If a woman does harm to her kinsmen and friends, or if she causes herself to miscarry, no one should hold con- verse with her. What sin is incurred in killing a Brahman, abortion causes a sin twice as great ; there is no atonement for that sin. The abandonment of such a woman has been ordained by law. He who sets his face against righteousness, is but a Chandala by his acts. He gains nothing by being a mendicant, or by worshipping the household fire. If seeds be carried either by a stream or by wind unto the soil of a person’s field, and a crop is yielded by the field so sown, the crop will belong to the owner of the soil, not to the person who owned the seeds. Similar thereto are the two descriptions of bastard sons, both begotten on another’s wife ; they pass by the names of Kunda and Golaka. The bastard is a Kunda, if the woman’s husband lives ; it is a Golaka if begotten after his death. A son is either an aurasa (son of the body) ; or a kshetraja (an offspring of one’s wife by a kinsman or person duly appointed to procreate issue to the husband) ; or a datta ; (that is, obtained by gifts) ; or a kritima, (I. e., a son made). If either the father or the mother gives, the same is called a given son. An elder brother remaining unmarried while a younger marries, and that same younger brother himself who mar- ries before his elder brother, and the woman who becomes the wife of such a younger brother, together with the person who gives away the bride, and the priest who offi- ciates at the marriage, — all these are doomed to hell. A double Krichchhra is the penance ordained for the said elder brother, a single Krichchhra for the bride herself. He who gave away the bride must perform a Krichchhra and an Atikrichchhra ; while the priest must observe the Chan- drayana rite. If the elder brother be a hunchback, a dwarf, a eunuch, an idiot, or hoarse of voice, (probably the word * gadgada ‘ here means ‘ a person of an indistinct utterance,’ like the dumb), or blind from birth, or deaf, or dumb, there is no sin in the younger’s marrying first. If the elder be his paternal uncle’s son, or the son of a co-wife of the mother, or the son of another’s wife- then the younger has no sin if he disregards him, either in marriage, or in setting up the agnihotra fire. [For the younger brother to set up his household fire before the elder is a sin ; the setting up of a household fire is in general succeeded by marriage.] Where the elder brother is alive, but hasn’t set up agnihotra fire, the younger may do so, being permitted by him. This is in conformity to what Shank has said. When her husband is missing, or is dead, or has renounced the world, or is impotent, or has been degraded by sin, — on any of the said five calamities befalling a woman, law has ordained another husband for her. If a woman has led a continent life, after her lord departed this life, she wins a region of bliss after her death, like to the well-known male observers of a celebate life. If a woman follows her departed lord, by burning herself on the same funeral pile, she will dwell in heaven for as many years as there are hairs on the human frame, — which reach the number of three crores and a half. 31. As a snake-catcher seizes a venomous serpent by force, and from within its hole lifts it up ; so does a wife deliver her lord from the torments of hell, and then rejoices [in heaven] with him. FIFTH CHAPTER. EXPIATIONS 1. If a superior Brahman is bitten by a wolf, or by a dog, or a jackal, or the like, he should wash himself, and should inaudibly recite the Gayatri verse, the holy mother of the vedic hymns. 2. A person bitten by a dog is pure again, if he washes himself with water touched with the horns of a cow, or at the confluence of two big rivers, or if he pays a visit to the sea. 3. Should a Brahman sanctified by a knowledge of the veda, by learning and regular observance of religious rites, happen to be bitten by a dog, he washes himself with water touched with gold, then drinks ghee, and becomes pure. 4. If a person happens to receive the bite of a dog, while in course of performing a religious rite, he should fast for full three nights, should swallow ghee, and drink some water touched with the kusa grass, and should then perform the remaining part of the religious rite. 5. If a twice born, whether he leads a strictly re- ligious life or not, is bitten by a dog, let a number of Brah- mans be saluted by him, who render him pure by casting their eyes on him. 6. If a part of the body be smelt, or licked by a dog, or scratched with the nails of the beast, — to wash it with water and to singe it with fire, — are the two courses pre- scribed by law. 7. If a Brahman woman be bitten by a dog, or a jackal, or a wolf, — the rising stars and planets should be looked at by her, whereby she becomes immediately pure. 8. If it be a dark fortnight, and the moon at no moment comes to sight, she should gaze at that part of the heavens, where the moon is known to be travelling at the time. 9. If a superior Brahman be bitten by a dog, and there is no other Brahman in the village, he should circumambulate a bull and bathe ; thereby he becomes immediately pure. 10 — 14. If a Brahman, who performs agnihotra, be killed by a Chandala, or a SVapaka,or by cattle, or by Brahmans, or if he has committed suicide by poison, his dead body should be burnt by another Brahman, with lowkikagni,(i.e., not the sacred household fire) without reciting the holy mantras. If the body be touched, or carried or burnt, by any person connected by blood with him, — the penance of Prajapatya should thereafter be observed by that person, with the permission of other Brahmans. Then the Brahman should take out and wash with milk the calcined bones ; and then with his own holy fire, while reciting the hymn proper for his tribe, separately burn the same once again. If a Brahman, who had his sacred fire, should depart this life by the fiat of fate while dwelling in a foreign country, and his sacred fire yet subsists in his house, hear, most excellent Saints, the sacred regulation relating to his cremation rite. 15 — 18. Let the hide of a black antelope be spread ; let the figure of a man be made with kusa grass ; let seven hundred leaves be gathered with their footstalks intact ; let forty of these be placed on the head of the figure ; ten upon the throat ; one hundred on the two arms ; and ten upon the fingers ; one hundred on the hip ; two hundred on the belly ; eight on the two testicles ; five on the male organ ; twenty- one on the two thighs ; two hundred on the knees and the legs ; and six on the toes of the feet. Let the sacrificial vessels be then arranged. 19 — 21.The vessel shamya should be placed on the male organ, and the wood for generating the frictional fire(arani) on the two testicles ; the vessel juhu on the right hand ; the vessel upabhrit on the left hand ; the mortar on his back, as also the pestle ; the stone slab on the chest ; rice, ghee and sesamum seed upon the mouth ; the water vessel upon his ear ; the vessel for holding the ghee on his eyes. A piece of gold should be placed on his ear, eyes, mouth and nose. 22 — 23. At the spot one should bring together all the requisites for a burnt sacrifice ; and should make an offering with the recitation of the hymn, which begins with the words — ‘ asau svargaya lokaya lokaya, svaha.’ This offering should be made either by a son, or by a brother, or by any kinsman of the deceased. The observances are the same as followed when a burnt sacrifice is performed. This ought to be done by persons learned in law. 24. When the observances conform to what has been said above, the dead man undoubtedly reaches the abode of the supreme Being(brahma loka). And the Brahmans who burn him are destined to attain the highest bliss. 25, But if they rely upon their own understanding, and are led to adopt a different course, they are sure to shorten their lives, and cast themselves into an impure hell. End of fifth chapter. SIXTH CHAPTER EXPIATION FOR KILLING ANIMALS: 1. Now I am going fully to explain the expiation neces- sary for killing animals, such as Parasara explained it before, and is detailed in full in Manu’s work. 2. If a heron (krauncha), a crane, a goose, a ruddy goose, a cock, a web-footed animal, or a sarabha, be killed purity is restored in a single day, 3. The killer of a heron, a tittibha, a parrot, a pigeon, a snake, or a crocodile, attains purity by fasting in the day- time and eating at night. 4. The killer of a wolf, a crow, a dove, a hill maina, or a quail, purifies himself by plunging in water, and performing a single pranayama, both at the rising and the setting of the sun. [The word in the original is ‘ vrika ‘, which ordinarily means ‘ a wolf.’ Madhava says that it here means * a species of bird.’] 5. Let the killer of a vulture, a hawk, a rabbit, or an owl, live, to purify himself, on uncooked food for an entire day, and on air for three meal times. 6. Let the killer of a valguli, a tittihha, a black-bird, a wag-tail, a Idvikd, or the red-winged bird, purify himself by eating at night. [In these verses, the same animal is mentioned more than once ; Madhava says that different sub-species are intended thereby.] 7. Let the killer of a klirandava, a chakora, the tawny bird, an osprey, a sky-lark, or the like, purify himself by worshipping Shiva. 8. And the expiation for killing a bherunda, a blue jay, a bhasa, a dove, a partridge, in fact all sorts of birds, is a fast for an entire day. 9. For killing a mouse, a cat, a snake, a monster snake, or the dundubha snake, a number of Brahmans should be fed with krisara, (Khichri, — rice, ghee and peas or sesamum cooked together,) and the gratuity should be an iron rod. 10. A man purifies himself from the sin of j killing a porpoise, a lizard, a snake, a tortoise, or a porcupine, by living on egg-fruit for an entire day. 11. The killer of a wolf, a jackal, a bear, or a hyena, purifies himself by living on air for full three days, and giving a Brahman a prastha of sesamum seed. [A prastha consists of 48 double handfuls.] 12. The expiation for killing an elephant, a horse, a buffalo, or a camel, is a fast for an entire day, and plunging in water for three times, — at sunrise, sunset and noon. 13. A man expiates the sin of killing an antelope, a monkey, a lion, a leopard, or a tiger, by a three nights’ fast, and by gratifying a number of Brahmans with food. 14. Let the killer of a stag, a rohita, a boar, a sheep, or a goat, fast for an entire day, and break the fast with some such food as has not been produced by the tillage of land. 15. And so for killing any fourfooted beast, or any animal that roves in the wood, there should be a fast for an entire day, while inaudibly reciting that special hymn, which relates to the god of fire. 16. If a woman, an artist, or a mechanic, be killed, two prajapatyas is the penance prescribed, and the gratuity is a bull and ten cows. 17. Should one kill an innocent member of the military caste, or a similar Vaisya, he should expiate it by a double atikrichchhra, and a gratuity of twenty heads of cattle, 18. For killing a Vaishya who lives a Shoodra’s life, or a Brdhman who perpetrates forbidden acts, the penance pre- scribed is the lunar fast, with a gratuity of thirty head of cattle. 19. If a Brahman should ever happen to kill any person of the Chandala caste, let him perform a Krichchhra praja- patya; and give a gratuity of two cows. 20. If a person belonging to the Chandala caste, should happen to be killed by one of the Kshatriya tribe, or by a Vaisya, or by a Shoodra, the slayer becomes pure by half a krichchhra. 21. If a thief, a Svapaka, or a Chandala, comes to be killed by one of the Brahmin caste, the murderer may purify himself by fasting for an entire day, and by tasting the five articles derived from a cow. 22. If a Brahman speaks to one of the Svapaka caste, or to a person of the Chandala tribe, he should speak to a member of the Brahman caste, and once recite the Gayatri verse. 23. For sleeping together with many of the Chandala caste, let a Brahman fast for full three nights. If he treads a path that a Chandala has trodden, his sin is removed by a remembrance of the Gayatri verse 24. On seeing a Chandala, let him look at the sun without a moment’s delay. For touching a Chandala, let him bathe with his clothing on. 25. If a Brahman drinks water from a tank excavated by a Chandala, and if it be done without knowledge, he will be pure by omitting one meal ; else it is necessary to fast for a day. 26. For drinking water raised from a well, into which a Chandala’s pot has been dipped, purity may be restored by drinking for three nights cow’s urine in which half-ripe barley has been blended. 27. If a Brahman drinks water contained in a Chandala’s jar, provided he throws it up then and there, he will have to observe the prajiipatya penance. 28. But if he fails to throw the water up, and if it is assimilated into his body, let the penance prescribed be not prajapatya but krichchhra santapana. 29. A Brahman in the above case should perform a santapana; a member of the next inferior caste has to per- form a prajapatya ; the penance for a Vaisya is half of the same ; while for the Shoodra a quarter penance is pre- scribed. 30 — 31. If a Brahman, a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, or a Shoodra, should by inadvertence drink water, or curd, or milk con- tained in the vessel of the lowest castes ; — then the rege- narrates are purified by Brahmakoorcha and a fast ; a Shoodra by a fast and by making gifts, so far as his ability extends. [Madhava cites a verse mentioning the following seven as the ‘ lowest castes ‘, or ‘ antyaja ‘, as they are called : — the washerman, the worker in leather, the actor, the Varuda (probably the betel- grower), the fisherman, the Meda, and the Bheel.] 32. When a Brahman through ignorance chances to eat any food that belongs to one of the Chandala caste, he should purify himself by living on half-ripe barley and cow’s urine for ten nights. 33. The barley should be steeped in the cow’s urine, and one mouthful thereof should be taken day by day ; for ten days he must live a blameless life ; this is the penance pre- scribed for him. 34. If a Chandala stays in a person’s house, while his caste is not known to anybody there, — then, when his caste comes to be known, the Brahmans, when waited upon, should show a favour by prescribing the penance. 35. Brahmans well-versed in the rules of law and thoroughly conversant with all the Vedas, should propound rules which have emanated from the mouths of saints, and rescue the sinking sinner from his sin. 36. He and his servants, all should eat milk, unripe barley, cow’s urine, curd and ghee ; and there- should be a plunge in water at the three conjunctions, (sunrise, sunset and noon). 37. He is to eat the mixture of barley and urine with curd for three successive days ; for three days again with the ghee ; and with the milk he eats it three days ; for full three days with each of the above-named things. 38. He must not eat it with a feeling of disgust, or as if it were the remains of another’s meal, or as if it were polluted from a contact with worms. Of curd or milk, three palas are taken ; and of the ghee, only a single pala. [A pala = 4i or 8 tolas.] 39. Copper or bell-metal vessels become purified, by rubbing with ashes ; washing in water makes all clothing clean ; an earthen pot is clean by abandonment. 40. Then the safflower, the molasses, cotton, oil, ghee, and all the paddy, [in the house] should be deposited at the door, and then the house should be set on fire. [The above expiations are intended as a purification, when a Chandala has lived unknown in the house.] 41. Having done all this, he should thereafter gratify the Brahmans with food ; and the gratuity prescribed to be given them is thirty cows,and a single bull. 42. The ground itself is rendered pure, by being plas- tered anew, by digging up, by offerings made on the fire, or by the recitation of the sacred words ; it loses its pollu- tion also by the Brahmans having rested their feet upon it. 43. In case of association for a month or half a month, with persons belonging to the Chandala caste, purity returns by living on cow’s urine, wherewith unripe barley is mixed, during the period of half a month 44 — 45. If a washerwoman, or a woman of the caste that works in leather, or of the hunter, or of the fowler caste, or of that works in bamboo, should live unknown in the house of one who belongs to any of the four chief castes ; — then, when the fact is known, the process for purification is half of what has been described above ; the house, however, need not be burnt ; but the rest of the foregoing ceremony must necessarily be performed 46. If a Chandala should enter the inside of any one’s house, he must be turned out from the abode, and all the earthen vessels should be thrown away. 47. But an earthen vessel filled with an oily substance need not be thrown away. The house should be washed with cow-dung and water, mixed together. 48. When there is a wound or a sore on a Brahman’s body, and there is a secretion of pus and blood, and worms have been generated there, — if it be asked, what should the penance be ? 49. A person who has been bitten by worms, should for three days wash himself with cow- dung and with the urine of the cow, and with curd and milk, and with ghee ; he should swallow the same ; he would thus become pure. 50. A Kshatriya too, should become pure, by making a gift of five mashas of gold. For a Vaisya, the prescribed penance is, — the gratuity of a cow, and likewise a fast. 51 — 54. For the S’lidras, however, no fast is ordained in the case ; a Shoodra is pure by the making of a gift. When the Brahmans, who are the divinities of the earth, utter the words, — * all has been rightly performed ‘ — the same should be accepted with an obeisance and bending of the head ; for in the said utterance from a Brahman’s mouth are gathered the fruits of an agnishtoma rite. The defects in the performance of any religious rite, whether recitation, or austerities, or the performance of a sacrificial rite — are all removed, if the Brahmans signify the approval thereof. If the sinner be ill, or in distress, or fatigued, or in times of I scarcity or civil commotion, — the fast, the austerities and ! offerings are vicariously performed by employing a Brahman. Or the Brahmans in a body, may, out of grace, sow an indulgence to the sinful man. 55. If penance is performed by employing Brahmans, all its objects are sure to be gained. Indulgence is due to a feeble man, as also to the young and the aged. 56. In case of others, indulgence would be worthy of blame. Therefore indulgence is not sanctioned by law. If from affection, or avarice, or through fear, or ignorance of the law, 57. Indulgence should be shown to a sinner ; then the sin transfers itself from the sinner to those who show indul- gence in prescribing the penance. Similarly the sin will transfer itself to them, if they prescribe an impracticable penance, when the sinner is at the point of death. 58 — 60. For thereby is impeded a momentous duty. But this rule applies not to a healthy man. If, however, the prescribers of expiation, from ignorance of the law, vicari- ously perform the penance for a healthy man, and propound this rule for even him, they obstruct the real expiation of the sinful man, and sink into an impure region of woe. If a person disregards the instructions a Brahman gives, and if he performs the expiation just a^ it pleases himself, his fast is fruitless ; he never wins any religious merit. The form of expiation, which even a single Brahman thinks fit to pre- scribe, should be accepted by all. [The beginning of shloka 58 is thus explained by Madhava. ‘ The momentous duty referred to here is the duty of calling to mind some beneficent divinity at the very moment of death, whereby all sins may be removed then and there. If an impracticable expiation is prescribed, the dying man will be in anxiety and trepidation thinking solely that he was going to die with all his sins unexpiated- And so with a preoccupied mind, the sinner does not even call the to mind, which no doubt would be deplorable. Therefore, one who undertakes to prescribe a penance should be cautious that he does not prescribe an exceedingly severe form of expiation, be- yond the power of the sinful man to perform. But this rule does not apply to a healthy man, I. e., there ought not to be any fear in prescribing the proper form of expiation if the sinner is healthy.] 61 — 62. The sayings of Brahmans must receive accept- ance ; otherwise is incurred the sin of killing a child in the womb. The Brahmans are peripatetic places of pilgrimage, so are righteous persons ; what they utter is like the water from a holy pool. It washes the sins of uncleanly men. What the Brahmans say is respected by the deities them- selves. 63 — 66. In a Brahman are united all the gods. What he says never turns false. Whether a fast, or a recitation, or an act of washing one’s self, or a religious rite, pilgrim- age, or an act of some austerity, if it be performed vicari- ously by a Brahman for another, all its objects are sure to be gained. If there be worms in any food, or if the food be polluted with flies or the like, — water should be touched in the midst of eating the food, and the food itself should be touched with ashes. If a Brahman, while eating, should touch his foot with his hand, he eats the leavings of another person ; and likewise he who eats off a broken plate. One should not eat, while he is wearing his shoes, nor while reclining upon a bed, nor while he is standing up. 67 — 69. Articles of food which have been looked at by a dog, or by a person of the Chandala caste, should be thrown away. What food is forbidden, and what the purification is for polluted food, I am going to tell you, just as Parasara has propounded it. If it is food, which has been already cooked, where its quantity equals an Dhaka or a droids a, and is polluted by contact with a crow or a dog, the owner of the polluted food should present himself before a number of Brahmans, and should submis- sively ask them how the food should be rendered pure. But a quantity of food equal to a drona in measure, though it be touched by the mouth of a crow or a dog-, should never be thrown away as unclean food. 70. Thirty-two prasthas make a drona, and an ddhaha is equal to two prasthas ; so say Brahmans who know the Veda, who are skilled in the branches of it, and whose conduct is regulated by the Institutes of law. 71 — 75. From this, the learned in the Veda and in the law, may readily ascertain what quantity of food a drona or an ddhaka is.’ A Brahman should throw away a small quantity of food, if it has been touched by the mouth of a crow or a dog, or has been smelt by a cow or an ass. If a drona or an ddhaka be its measure, then there is no unclean- ness in it. That part of the food, which the saliva of the animal has made unclean, should be picked up and thrown away ; then the food should be besprinkled with water touched with gold ; then it should be heated near a fire. Touched with the fire, and besprinkled with water which has had a contact with gold, and purified with the hymns of the Veda which the Brahmans recite near the polluted food, it becomes fit to be eaten without a moment’s hesitation. If it be oil or ghee, or milk of the cow, and if the question be, what purification is proper for it, — a small portion should be thrown away ; and the oil or ghee should be strained ; the milk of a cow is purified by applying the flame of a fire to it. End of the sixth chapter. SEVENTH CHAPTER. PURIFICATION OF MATERIALS: 1. Now follows the topic of purification of chattels, in conformity to what Parasara has said. Of wooden vessels, the purification is paring with the adze. 2. A woman becomes pure, by her monthly courses, provided she has not gone astray ; a river is pure, if there is a stream in it, and if no impurities are visible on it. 3. If an elongated tank, or a well, or a reservoir, becomes unclean on any account, a hundred jars of water should be drawn and thrown away, and the remainder is rendered pure by mixing with it the five articles derived from a cow. {_Viz., urine, dung, ghee, milk and curd.] 4. Gauri (fair) is the appellation of a female child, when she is only eight years old ; rohim (scarlet) is her name when she is nine ; she is a hanyd (virgin) when ten years old ; thereafter she becomes similar to a female who has her courses month by month. 5. When the twelfth year is reached by the female child, if the guardian does not give her away in marriage, her fore- fathers drink, without interruption, during each succeeding month, whatever blood is passed in her courses. 6. The mother, and the father, and likewise the eldest brother, all these three relatives will go to hell, if before menstruation they neglect to marry the girl. 7. If a Brahman, deluded by ignorance and pride, comes to marry a girl of the aforesaid kind, he does not deserve to be spoken to ; food should never be partaken in company with him : that Biahman becomes the husband of a Shoodra girl. 8. To remove the sin which a Brahman incurs by enjoy- ing a Shoodra female for a single night, he must for three years subsist on alms, and daily recite sacred hymns. 9. Where after sunset, a Chandala or a degraded man, or a woman in her confinement, or a corpse, has been touched — if the question be, what is the method of purifying one’s self? 10. By looking at the fire, likewise at gold, and at the path by which the moon traverses the sky, and by washing himself when Brahmans have given permission to him, the sinner is rendered free from sin. 11. If two Brahman women, both being then in their monthly courses, should happen to touch each other’s person, they must observe a fast till the courses cease ; both become pure when the third night is passed. 12. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, and the other belong to the Kshatriya tribe, — both being in their monthly courses then, and they should happen to touch each other’s person, the first must observe one half of the Krich- chhra penance, while the second only a fourth. 13. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, and the other belong to the Vaisya tribe, — both being in their monthly courses then, and they should happen to touch each other’s person, the first must observe three-fourths of the Krich- chhra penance ; while the second only a fourth. 14. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, and the other belong to the Shoodra tribe, — both being in their monthly courses then, and if they happen to touch each other’s person, — the first must observe a Krichchhra penance, while the second becomes pure by making a gift. 15. A woman in her monthly courses, is restored to purity after having washed herself, on the fourth day. When the courses actually cease, however, it is then that she should engage herself in the performance of the rites due to the manes and the gods. 16. When the menstrual fluid flows from day to day on account of a disease, it causes no impurity; that is, uncleanness by reason of disease alone. 17. As long as the menstrual fluid continues to flow, so long the acts and doings of the woman cannot be clean. When the courses cease, the woman becomes fit to have intercourse with, and she may then employ herself in the household duties. 18. On the first day that the blood begins to flow, the woman is comparable to a female Chandala ; on the second, she is like a Brahmanicide ; on the third, she may be likened to a washerwoman. On the fourth day, * however, she is entirely pure. [ Madhava says that the comparisons imply this, — as great a sin will be incurred by having intercourse with her on those particular days, as would be incurred by having intercourse with the females is compared to.] 19. If it be necessary for a person not in health, to wash himself in order to expiate a sin, — a healthy person should wash himself for ten successive times, and every time he ie., to touch the person diseased, whereby the latter will be ren- dered pure. 20. While a Brahman has not washed himself after taking his meals, if he chances to be touched by another yet un- washed after a meal, or by a dog, or by a Shoodra, he should fast for a single night, and then swallow the five articles derived from a cow, whereby purity is restored to- him. 21. If himself unwashed, he is touched by a Shoodra, who, however, is not unwashed, — the purification is to wash him- self. If an unwashed Shoodra touches an unwashed regenerate man, the latter must perform the prajapatya penance. 22. A bronze vessel may be rendered clean, by means of ashes being rubbed upon it, provided spirituous liquor does not besmear it. But having come in contact with any sort of spirituous liquor, it can be purified only by fire, and by its surface being scraped with a sharp instru- ment. 23. Bronze vessels smelt by a cow, or polluted by a dog or a crow, or if a Shoodra has made them unclean by eating off them, are rendered pure, when they have been ten times rubbed with ashes. 24. If on a vessel made of bronze, a gargle is cast, or water which has been used in washing the feet, — it should be buried in the earth for full six months, and at the end of that period it may be again taken out and put to use. 25 — 26. Iron vessels are purified, after iron has been rubbed upon them ; a lead vessel is purified by being melted in the fire. In the case of vessels made of ivory, bone, horn, silver, or gold, or of costly stones, or of conch; water should be “used for the purpose of washing them ; thereafter they should be rubbed with stone. This is the purification prescribed by law. 27. Earthen vessels, by being burnt, are rendered clean ; and paddy, when scoured, is rendered clean ; vessels made of bamboo, or bark, and rags, linen, cotton clothing, and woolen cloth, and the birch tree bark ;— these are purified by sprinkling water on them. 28. Furniture made of munja grass, and likewise the winnowing fan, fruits, all sorts of leather and hide, and grass of various kinds, and wood, and ropes — all these are purified by sprinkling on them water. 29. A painting brush, pillows, scarlet cloth, and such other things, after being dried in the sun, are to be sprinkled with water to render them pure. 30. Cats, flies, insects, moths, worms, and frogs, come in contact with both what is pure and what is the reverse of pure; but their contact transmits no impurity. So Manu has said. 31. Running water, while touching the ground, and particles of saliva, flying from each other’s mouth, when a talk is held by two persons ; and oily substances, that may be left, after having been partaken of as food ; these are never unclean ; so it has been said by Manu. By pouring water to the ground, the half drunk water by other brahmanas become pure to be consumed as per Manu. 32. Betel and sugarcane, and likewise fruits, and oily substances which have been partaken of as food, and any unguent for perfuming the body, — these are never unclean on the occasion of offering a madhuparka, or on the occasion of a soma rite. Madhuparka is a present made to an honored guest i.e madhu or honey being an essential part of it] 33. Roads, mud, and water, and boats, and paths, and grass, are purified by the sun and the wind; and so are buildings made of burnt bricks. 34. A continuous stream is never unclean, nor dust which is carried by the breeze here and there ; and women, and aged persons, and infants too, are never unclean. 35. During a civil commotion, or in exile, or when ill, or in misfortune, the first consideration is to preserve one’s life ; practice of religion should at the time be postponed. 36. By any kind of conduct, soft or cruel, one should deliver himself from a distressed state ; the practice of reli- gious rites ought to be left for a period when he is equal to the task. 37. After the misfortune is over, one should think of purification and religious rites. Thereafter purity may be recovered by him. He ought to practice religion when his troubles are past. End of the seventh chapter. EIGHTH CHAPTER. EXPLANATION FOR PRACTISE OF DHARMA: 1. Should cattle happen to die, while tied to a yoke, and without the owner’s wish, — what should the expiation be for this involuntary sin ? 2. The sin should be confessed before a number of such Brahmans as have studied the veda and its branches, as are conversant with the Institutes of Law, and devoted to their duty. 3. Brahmans who know not the Gayatri relating to Savita, who are unacquainted with the Sandhya prayers, and with the sacrifice of fire, and who betake to tillage, — are Brahmans in name only. 4. Brahmans who know not the religious rites, nor the mantras, — who make their living solely on the merit of their caste, — though gathered by thousands, cannot consti- tute a council {parishad for expounding the law). 5. Whatever is said by densely stupid and senseless people unacquainted with the law for the expiation of sin, — the same multiplies a hundred-fold into sin, and the expoun- ders are affected by the multiplied sin. 6. Where one, unacquainted with the Institutes of Law, prescribes an expiation for sin, the sinner is rendered pure — but the sin is transferred to the prescriber. 7. If four or three Brahmans, whose knowledge of the Veda is thorough and complete, unite in expounding a rule of law, — the exposition is to be taken as the law to be followed ; — not what is declared by a thousand men of a different character. 8. In expounding a rule of law, authorities should be sought, and consulted anew; sin is in terror from persons who do the same ; for law declared by them is essentially right. 9. As water deposited on a piece of stone is dried up by the sun and the wind; so sin generated by evil deeds comes to an end, when a council have declared what the atonement is. 10. The sin affects not the sinner ; n attacks not the council; it is destroyed, like water from contact with wind and solar heat. 11. Four or three Brahmans, versed in the Veda, and daily worshipping the household fire, and endowed with capacity, are fit to form a council. 12. If the Brahmans be such as have not set up a sacred fire, but at the same time are thoroughly versed in the Veda and its branches, and are acquainted with what the law is, five, or three of such would form a council. 13. Of saints, possessing knowledge of the nature of the soul, Brahmans in caste, performing sacrificial rites, and who have bathed on completion of the religious ceremonies which the Veda prescribes, even one can form a council. 14. I have first declared five to be the right number; but in the absence of five, three of such as are devoted to the occupation prescribed for their caste, would be fit to con- stitute a council. 15. Besides these — whatever other Brahmans there may possibly be, who are the bearers of the Brahman name alone, — they, even though numbering thousands upon thou- sands, have not the qualification to form a council. 16. Like the figure of an elephant made of wood, or an antelope made with skin, is a Brahman who is not educated : the three merely bear the names. 17. As is the site of a deserted village, or a waterless well, or an offering, made upon what is not fire, — so is a Brahman unacquainted with the mantras. 18. As a eunuch, by uniting with women, can beget no issue ; as a barren soil cannot produce a crop ; as gift is fruitless, if made to an ignorant man; so is a Brahman un- acquainted with the sacred words, good for nothing. 19. As by a gradual putting of tint after tint, a picture is developed into a life-like form; so, sacraments performed with recited hymns, bring out the inherent virtue of the Brahman. 20. If Brahmans, the mere bearers of a Brahman’s name, presume to prescribe a penance for sin, — they are guilty of a sin, and are destined to go to hell. 21. The Brahmans who habitually study the Veda, and are constant in performing the five sacrificial rites, even though addicted to sensual pleasure, are able to deliver all the three worlds. 22. Fire prepared on a cremating ground, can, when kindled, consume all ; similarly a Brahman, who knows the Veda, though eating everything, is yet like a god. 23. It is into the water that people cast all impure things ; in the same way, the burden of all sins should be cast into the fire of a superior Brahman. 24. A Brahman, ignorant of the Gayatri h3^mn, is more unclean than even a Shoodra ; the Brahmans who know the nature and the sanctity of the Gayatri hymn, are honored and revered by all persons. 25.Even a Brahman of a bad character deserves re- pect; but not so a Shoodra, even though his passions may have been subdued by him. Who would quit a wicked cow, and try to milk a docile female ass? 26. The institutes of law form the car on which the Brahman mounts ; the Veda is the sword which he wields ; whatsoever he says is to be taken as the high- est rule of law, 27. One skilled in each of the four Vedas ; one who knows what a religious duty is and what is the expia- tion for its breach ; one who is competent to expound the law ; one versed in the branches of the Veda ; one who has studied the institutes of law ; and the three, who are in any of the higher stages of life — these ten persons are the best fitted to form a council. 28. The penance should be prescribed with the approval of the king ; it should never be prescribed independently of the king ; but where the penance is trifling, it may be carried out (without such approval) . . 29. If the king intends to lay down the law, disregarding what the Brahmans say, — the sin is multiplied a hundred- fold, and, so increased, affects the king 30. Expiations should be prescribed in front of a temple ; then the prescriber shall perform a Kricchra for him- self, and then recite the Gayatri hymn, the mother of the Veda. 31. The sinner must shave his head, including the coronal lock ; he must plunge in the water at sunrise, sunset, and noon ; he must pass a night in the midst of cows ; and in the daytime must follow the footsteps of cows. 32. In heat, in rain, in cold, or when the wind is blow- ing hard, he must not seek to shelter for himself without procuring a shelter for the cow, so far as he is able. 33. Whether it be in his own, or in any other person’s house, or in a field, or on a threshing-floor, — if he espies a cow consuming corn, he must not give a warning to any ; nor must he warn the owne, if the calf be (stealthily) suck- ing the milk. 34. The sinner should drink water when the cows would drink ; he should go to sleep when they are about to sleep ; if a cow gets a fall, and sticks in the mud, he should raise her with the exertion of his utmost strength. 35. He who loses his life for a Brahman’s sake, or on a cow’s behalf, is freed from the sin of killing a Brahman ; so also is he who has saved the life of a Brahman or a cow. 36. Having regard to the special feature of the sin, which may have been incurred by killing a cow, one should prescribe the Prajapatya penance. The two forms of expia- tion, Krichchhra and Prajapatya, may be divided into four grades. 37. For the first day the rule should be to take only a single meal ; for the next day, to eat at night ; for the third day, to eat what, unasked, is given to him ; and on the fourth day, to live on air. 38. For two days, to have only a single meal a day ; for two days to eat only at night ; for two days, to eat, what, unasked, is given to him ; and for two days, to subsist on air. 39. For three days to have a single meal a day, for three days to eat only at night ; for three days to refrain from asking for food ; and for three days, to subsist on air. 40. For four days to have a single meal (a day) ; for four days to eat solely at night, for four days to refrain from asking for food ; and for four days to subsist on air. 41. When the penance has been finished, Brahmans should have a feast given them ; and a gratuity too is to be given them ; and the Brahmans should inaudibly recite the puri- ficatory sacred hymns. 42. The killer of a cow, who has feasted the members of the Brahman caste, will undoubtedly be free from sin. End of the eighth chapter. 41. When the penance has been finished, Brahmans should have a feast given them ; and a gratuity too is to be given them ; and the Brahmans should inaudibly recite the puri- ficatory sacred hymns. 42. The killer of a cow, who has feasted the members of the Brahman caste, will undoubtedly be free from sin. End of the eighth chapter. Ninth chapter Service to cows: 1. Where cows are confined, or are tied, simply with the object of protecting them from harm, no sin arises on the death of a cow, whether (the death be caused by) voluntary or involuntary action. 2. If a cow is killed by striking it with an instrument larger than a stick, then the expiation for it should be twice of what has been detailed hereinbefore. 3. On death from confinement, a quarter of the penance is to be performed ; on death from binding, two quarters ; on death from tying to a yoke, three quarters ; the entire penance, when hitting causes the death. 4 — 5. Death in a pasture, or in the house, or in places difficult of access, or in rugged and uneven spots, or in rivers, seas, and other like places, or at a river’s mouth, or at a spot where the conflagration of a forest has taken place is denominated death by confinement. 6 — 9. Death occurring while a bull is tied to a yoke, or with a band round the belly or neck, or with an ornament of any kind, whether. in a house or in a wood, would be death by binding, whether brought about willfully or not. If death should happen while the bull is attached to a plough, or to a cart, or oppressively burdened by men on the back, then also it is said to be caused by a tie. If a person drunk, heedless, or mad, whether conscious or unconscious of his act, whether willfully or otherwise, excited with wrath, hits the cow with sticks or stones ; and the cow so hit hap- pens to be killed, the death is said to be caused by hitting. 10. A staff as thick as the thumb, and as long as an arm, and which has been recently broken from a tree, is fresh, and has the leaves yet upon it, is denominated a danda or * stick. ^ 11 — 12. If a bull, hit with a stick, falls down, or faints ; then gets up, and walks some five or seven or ten steps ; or eats a mouthful ; or drinks a little water ; and then dies, there is no sin, and no expiation is needed ; provided the bull had been previously afl9.icted with some disease. 13. If the foetus of a cow is destroyed, while it is in an amorphous state, a quarter penance is prescribed for the sin; when it has attained some distinct form, then the penance should be two quarters ; by destroying a foetus which has not yet developed its consciousness, the sinner must perform three quarters. [Madhava says that there are four states of the foetus in the womb, — viz., amorphous, morphous, unconscious, and conscious ; in the amorphous, or panda condition, the foetus is but a bubble.] 14. In a quarter penance, the rule is to shave the hair all over the limbs ; in two quarters, the beard likewise ; in three quarters, the shaving is to be of all hair, except the coronal lock; but on killing after birth, the shaving includes the coronal lock too. 15. In a quarter penance, the gift to be made is a pair of clothes; in two quarters, a vessel made of bronze; in three quarters, a bull ; and in the full, a couple of cattle is the gift prescribed. 16. If all the members of the foetus are complete, or if it be observed to have consciousness, or fully developed in its limbs, large and small — then the sinner must perform twice the penance for killing a cow. 17 — 18. If a person has hit a cow with a piece of stone or with a stick, — he must perform a quarter penance on break- ing a horn; and two quarters on fracturing a bone; on injury to an ear, three quaters ; but the penance should be full, when death is caused. 19. On breaking a horn, a bone, or the spine about the waist, if the animal lives during the next six months, — there is no penance prescribed by law. [Madhava says that, in case the animal survives six months, the penance prescribed for causing death need not be performed ; but the penance for the particular injury must yet be performed.] 20. On causing a fracture or a wound, the sinner with his hand must apply some oily substance to the injured part ; fodder also must be given to it, till it is restored to full strength, 21. The man must nurse it, till its entire body is rendered whole ; and then, in a Brahman’s presence, he is to make obeisance to it, and bid it farewell. 22. If the entire body is not rendered whole again, if the body remains injured still, — then half the penance for kill- ing a cow is to be prescribed for the sinful man. 23. If cattle are bound or confined, with a view to pro- tect them at night, and if pain is caused, by reason of load- ing or unloading the beasts, there is no sin. 24. If a bull happens to be unduly burnt, on the occa- sion of cauterizing an injured part ; or if a bull is loaded beyond his strength ; and if he be sent, so loaded, to cross a river, or travel over hills, — the following penances are prescribed by law : 25. On an excessive burn, a quarter of the penance ; two quarters, in case of an excessive load ; on boring the nose of the bullock, and putting a rope through the bore, three quarters ; on causing death, the entire penance. 26. If a reckless person, using force, causes death to a cow, with a clod, a piece of wood, or a piece of stone, — the following is the penance to be prescribed for him. 27. In case of death being caused by a piece of wood, the penance santapana is prescribed by law ; in case of a clod, the prajapatya penance ; in case of a piece of stone, the tapta krichchhra ; in a case of death being caused by^ a cutting instrument, atikrichchhra is the penance. 28. Five cattle are the gratuity in the santapana pen- ance ; in the Prajapatya, three cows are prescribed; it is eight cows, in the Taptakrichra penance ; thirteen cows in the Atikrichchhra. 29. ^ On killing an animal, gift of a similar animal should be made ; or some price equivalent thereto : this is in con- formity to what Manu has said. 30. If by reason of an excessive burn, a bull should die, while tied with the harness ropes, the penance is a single quarter, duly performed : so Parasara has said. 31. There are six causes by which death may be caused ; confinement ; bonds ; loading ; hitting ; sending to difficult grounds ; and harnessing. 32. If, while the body of the beast is carefully bound with various bonds, the animal happens to die in the house, the sinner is bound to perform half the penance prescribed for killing a cow. 33. The ropes for binding cows must not be made of cocoanut fibre, nor of flax or hemp, nor of hair, nor of munja grass, nor of the bark of a tree, nor of iron chain ; should they be unavoidably bound with any such material, the owner should be ready with an axe, (to sever the bonds,) should any emergency arise. 34. The ropes for binding (cattle) should be made of the fibres of the husk or the kusa grass ; and while so fastened, the beast should have its face turned to the south ; should the beast be burnt while fastened with such ropes, there is no liability to any penance ade for a religious purpose. 35. If, however, there be a piece of wood connected with the ropes of the above character, the question arises, what form of penance is prescribed by law ? In such a case, one should recite the Gayatri hymn, the goddess that purifies sins, and thereby free himself from the sin. 36. If the owner sends his cattle to graze near wells and tanks, to grounds where trees are being felled, or if he sells them to persons who eat beef, — then he is affected with the sin of killing a cow, if death is caused to cattle thus dealt with. 37 — 38. On the occasion of worshipping a bull, should the bull, while being driven to run, (as a part of the ceremony of worship), have his side broken ; or get his ear or heart broken or injured, by reason of falling into a well ; or, while getting out of the well, get his neck or legs injured or broken ; and the animal expire in that state ; — in such a case, three quarters of the penance should be observed. 39. If a cow dies, having, in order to drink water, entered a very deep well, or dies on an embankment by a river, or on a dyke across a river, or at artificial reservoirs for water- ing cattle, — then the owner is liable to no expiation. 40. No expiation is necessary for the death of a cow in a well, or an embankment, or an elongated or a small tank, — or in other excavations made for a religious purpose. 41. But if any one should make an excavation just at the door of a house, or at places where the cows usually dwell, or within the house for his own purposes, (the object not being to win any religious merit,) — he is liable to an expiation, if a cow should expire by falling into it. 42. If cows, while confined or tied at night, are killed by tigers or by snakes, or are burnt to death, or killed by lightning, — there is no liability to expiate the sin. 43. If a village is attacked with flights of arrows, — in consequence whereof cows are killed, or if a house tumbles down and thereby kills cows, — or if they are killed on account of excessive rain, — there is no liability to expiate the sin. 44. For death of cows caused in course of warfare, or a conflagration, or the assault of a hostile force, — there is no necessity for a penance. 45. In a case of difficult parturition, if the cow has to be fastened for drawing the foetus out, and the animal expires in spite of every care, there is no liability to perform a penance. 46. In binding or in confining cows, if a large number dies, by reason of an ^error on the cattle doctor’s part, penance should be directed in such a case. 47. When spectators keep aloof, and refrain from giving help to cows or bulls in distress they are affected by sin. 48. When a single cow is killed by many in concert, and it is not known whose stroke has actually caused the death — then the officers of the king are to subject them all to some form of ordeal, to find out the person who really killed the cow. 49. If a single cow has been put to death by many persons through a mere accident ; they must each separately perform a quarter of the penance for killing a cow. 50. By seeing the blood, it is inferred that a cow has been killed ; leanness shows that disease has been the cause of death ; saliva about the teeth betokens the fact that the bite of some animal must have caused the death : thus is ascertained the fact of natural or violent death. Injuries other than death are inferred by facts like this, — that the animal is averse to take its food ; or is unable to proceed on the way. 51. Manu, versed in all the branches of learning, has prescribed a general penance for killing a cow, where the special features of the sin cannot be known. He directs that a person killing a cow is to observe the lunar fast. 52. If a sinner desires to retain his hair, then he must perform a double penance ; a double fee is essential for a double penance. 53. If the defaulter be a king, or the son of a king, or a learned Brahman, — the penance to prescribe in their case is, that they may dispense with the shaving of the hair. 54. For women and virgins, the shaving of the head is taken as accomplished when the entire mass of hair is raised and the top is clipped to the extent of two fingers’ breadth. 55. As regards a woman, there is no shaving of the head ; nor sitting or sleeping at a distance from home ; nor must a woman spend the night on the grazing ground ; nor in the day-time follow the steps of a cow. A woman must not rest in the cow pen in night, follow cows in daytime,joining of rivers and in forests. 56. Specially must a woman refrain from following the cows, where, to do so would take her to rivers, and conflu- ences, and likewise to forest tracts. Women must not wear a garment of skin. Thus is penance performed in their case : 57. They should wash at sunrise, sunset, and noon ; should also perform the worship of gods ; the penance, whether a Krichchhra or a Chandrayana, is performed by them, while living in the midst of friends. They are to stay in the house, and to perform the penance in a pure spirit. 58. In this world, if a person, who has been guilty of the sin of killing a cow, makes an attempt to conceal the fact, undoubtedly he goes to the frightful hell Kalasutra. 59. Released from that hell, he is born again in the mortal world, a feeble and impotent man, leprous and wretched, for seven successive existences. 60. Therefore sin should ever be disclosed; and the prescribed penance should always be performed. One should forswear immoderate wrath towards a woman, a child, a cow or a Brahman. End of the ninth Chapter. 1. Now I shall describe the penances while are salutary for all the castes. For sexual intercourse with a prohibited relation, the penance meet is Chan dray an a. 2. In the dark half of the month, one must take off from his daily food, mouthful by mouthful on each successive day ; it should begin in the light half of the month ; on the new moon day, there is an absolute fast ; this is the rule for the Chan dray an a penance. 3. Each mouthful is to be made as big as a hen’s egg ; otherwise, the sinful man would be wanting in good faith, and win no religious merit ; so he would not obtain freedom from the sin. 4. Having performed the penance, a feast should be given to Brahmans ; a pair of clothes, and a couple of cattle, form the fee for the Brahmans, 5. Should a regenerate man commit adultery with a woman of the Chandala or Svapaka caste, he should, by order of Brahmans, fast for three successive nights. 6. And Parasara has declared, that the fee to be given is a couple of cows, whereby freedom from the sin is obtained. Should a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, cohabit with a woman of the Chandala caste, 7. He is to perform a double Prajapatya, and to pay a fee of two couples of cattle, each couple to include a female and a male. 8. If a Shoodra commits an act of guilt with a woman of the Chandala or Svapaka caste, he must perform the prajapatya penance, and give a fee of four couples of cattle, each couple to include a female and a male ; 9. If a person, bereft of all sense, cohabits with his mother, or sister, or self-begotten daughter, ho must per- form a three-fold Krichchhra penance ; a tire-fold Chan- drayana should also be performed ; he must, likewise, cut off his male organ. 10. On cohabitation with a mother’s sister, it is requisite to cut off the male organ ; but if it has been done unwit- tingly, the sinner must perform a double Chandrayana. He must give ten couples of cattle, each couple to consist of a female and a male, as fee : this is the expiation as declared by Parasara. 11. On sexual union with a father’s wife, or a near re- lative of the mother, or a brother’s daughter, or the precep- tor’s wife, a son’s wife, or the wife of a brother, or the wife of a brother of the mother, or any woman of the same gotra, a three-fold Prajapatya is the expiation prescribed ; a couple of cattle is the fee to be given. Thus the sinner undoubtedly gets rid of his sin. 12. On carnal intercourse with a beast, or a prostitute and the like, or with a female buffalo, or with a female camel, or with a she monkey, or with a sow, or a female ass, one should perform the Prajapatya penance. 13. On carnal intercourse with a cow, the sin is removed by three nights’ fast; a cow should be presented to a Brahman as fee. On carnal connection with a female buffalo, a female camel or an ass, the sin is removed by one night’s fast. 14. On the occasion of a civil commotion, or in a war, during a famine, or an epidemic, or when people are being carried away as captives of war, or when there is a panic (in the land), one should always look after his wife. 15. If a woman has associated with persons of the Chan- dale caste, — then a meeting of not less than ten Brahmans should be assembled, and she should proclaim her sin before them. 16. A well should be made, deep enough to sink as far as the neck, and full of cow-dung and water and mud ; the woman should fast and stay within the well ; and should come out at the end of an entire day and night. 17. She is to shave her head, including even the coronal hair; she is to eat unripe barley mixed with water; she is to fast for three successive nights, and stay in water for a single night. 18. She must prepare a decoction with either the root, or leaves, or flower or fruit, of the creeping plant called the Sankhapushpi, mixed with gold and the five articles derived from a cow ; and she is to drink this decoction ; then she must live on one meal a day, until she is in menstrua- tion. 19. So long as she performs the penance, she is to dwell outside the house ; after the penance has been fully per- formed, she should give a feast to Brahmans. For fee she should give a couple of cattle. This is the purification declared by Manu, the self-existent’s son. 20. For a woman of any one of the four castes, if she is guilty of a sexual union with a Chandala, the purification is a Chandrayana. As the earth is, so is a woman ; she there- fore should not be regarded as wholly unclean. 21. If a woman is enjoyed by force, or by putting her in terror, or after she has been taken as a prisoner of war ; she is to perform the Shantapana penance : the sin is thus re^ moved, as Parasara has said. 22. If against her will, a woman has been once enjoyed by a wicked man ; she becomes pure by a Prajiipatya, and by the flow of blood during her monthly courses. 23. If a person’s wife drinks spirituous liquor, half his body becomes polluted by sin ; there can be no expiation for him, half whose body has become polluted by sin. But he should perform a Krichchra-sdntapana, while all along re- citing the Gayatri hymn. 24. A Krichchhra-santapana consists in eating cow-dung, cow’s urine, milk, curd, ghee, and water in which kusa grass has been dipped, and likewise a fast for a single night. 25. If a woman becomes pregnant b}^ her paramour, at a time when her husband is dead, or is missing; — she being a wicked and a degraded woman, should be carried to the territory of a different king, and be abandoned there. 26. If a Brahman woman, goes away with a paramour, she should be regarded as totally lost ; there can be no farther intercourse with her. 27. If a woman, from passion, or senselessness, abandons her relatives, her husband and sons, and goes away, she is lost, so far as her future life is concerned ; — altogether lost, so far as her relations are concerned. 28. If a woman is struck with a stick or the like on account of some mischievous or senseless act, and she gets incensed and goes away, and if it be her first offence, — there is no objection to her coming back again. 29. If she comes back within ten days, there is no liability to perform a penance. For ten days, a woman should not be given up as lost. But on information that she has committed the act of sin, she should be given up within ten days. 30. The husband must perform a Krichchhra penance; and the relatives, half a Krichchhra, And those who have associated with them in drinking or eating, are purified by fasting a day and night. 31. If a Brahman female goes away, although not accom- panied by a paramour, still her relatives must give her up, for fear that she may have had, after her departure from the house, sexual intercourse with a hundred men. 32. To whatever house a polluted Brahman woman goes in company of a paramour, — whether her husband’s, or father’s, or mother’s or paramour’s house, — the house itself becomes impure by reason of her presence. 33. That house should be scraped, and then wetted with the five articles derived from a cow ; all the earthen vessels should be thrown away; and the clothing and the wood should be purified. 34. All furniture should be purified in the prescribed form ; vessels made with shells of fruit are to be rubbed with the hair of the cow ; copper vessels should be purified with the five articles derived from a cow, and those of white copper by ten times rubbing them with ashes. 35. A Brahman should perform the penance propounded by other Brahmans ; he should give a fee of a couple of cattle ; and should perform a double Prajapatya. For the others, the purification is a fast for a day and night, and swallowing the five articles derived from a cow. 36. Brahmans and others are purified by fasts, rites, ablutions, daily prayers and worship of gods ; by recitation of sacred hymns, burnt-offerings, by acts of humanity and charity. 37. The ether, the wind, and the fire, are ever pure ; and so is water lying on the ground. The hue a grass, lite sacrificial vessels, are not unclean, so long as the rites are being performed. End of the tenth Chapter. 1. If a Brahman has partaken of any impure food, or has swallowed virile seed, or beef, or a Chandala’s food, he should perform a Krichchhra-chandrayana. 2. If it be a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, he should perform half a Chandrayana. If a Shoodra has committed a sin of the above character, he should perform a Prajapatya. 3. A Shoodra should swallow the five articles derived from a cow ; a regenerate man should drink Brahmakoorccha. The fee to be given is one, two, three or four cows, in the order of castes, — beginning with the Brahman. [Brahmakoorcha will be explained by the author a little further on. Verses 27 to 36.] 4 — 5. If a Brahman has partaken of a S’lidra’s food, or the food of a person unclean on account of an impurity of birth, or of a person who is unfit to be associated with in the matter of food, or any food suspected to be unclean, or any prohibited food, or the leavings of what another has eaten, and if this be done either with or without knowledge, or on account of being in a condition of distress; — the Brahman, when he knows, should perform a Kricchra ; and .part of the purificatory process is to drink Brahma-kirsch. 6. If any food has been polluted by being first touched with the mouth of children, or by mongooses or cats, — it will become pure on being besprinkled with water in which sesamum and the kusa grass have been dipped. 7. When a number of Brahmans have sat down ^together, in a single row, to eat their food, and of them, even when one has left his plate, the others should not be made to eat their respective food. 8. If a Brahman, from ignorance, should partake of the food, after it has become unclean, by the rising of one out of a row, — then he should perform the Krichchhra penance, and likewise the Santapana, 9 — 10. If a regenerate man, without knowledge,partakes of the milk of a cow that has recently calved, or if he eats the white garlic, or the egg-fruit, or the red garlic, or onion, or a juicy exudation from a tree, or the property of a god, or mushrooms, or the milk of a female camel or a female antelope ;-^|y fasting three nights, and eating the five articles derived from a cow, he becomes pure. 11. After knowingly eating the meat of a frog, or of a mouse, a Brahman will become pure by taking unripe barley as food. 12. A Kshatriya, or a Vaishya leading a religious life, and duly engaged in the ceremonies prescribed for his caste, — should on all occasions partake of food in his house, whenever a ceremony for the gods or for departed ancestors takes place in his house. 13. When a Shoodra gives a feast, a Brahman may eat ghee or milk or sesamum oil or any food cooked in some oily substance, — provided he goes to the bank of a river to eat it. 14. If a Shoodra be addicted to flesh meat and spirituous drinks, and constantly engaged in low occupations — he, like a member of the 8’vajpdha caste, should be shunned by a Brahman from afar. 15. A Brahman should never shun such S’lidras as are employed in the service of regenerate men, abstinent of spirit and flesh meat, and duly employed in their own occupation. 16 — 17. If a Brahman unwittingly partakes of food be- longing “to one who is unclean on account of impurity caused by birth or death,— what should be the expiation^ having reference to each particular caste? In case of a S’lidra’s food, unclean on account of impurity by birth, — the purification is the recitation of the Gayatri hymn for eight thousand times ; — in case of a Vaishya, five thousand times ; — in case of a Kshatriya, three thousand times. 18. If the food of a Brahman be partaken, then the recitation should be two thousand times. Or purity may be attained by reciting the hymn of the Somaveda, which is known under the name of the Rishi Vamadeva. 19. If dry food or milk, or any oily substance, be brought from a S’lidra’s house and cooked in a Brahman’s house, — that may be taken as food : — So Manu has said. 20. If at a time of distress, a Brahman has eaten in a Shoodra’s house, he becomes pure by repentance; — or he should one hundred times recite the verse of the Veda named the Drupada. 21. Among the Shoodras, these are the sub-castes whose food it is allowable to partake ; — viz., a Dasa, a Gondola (cow- herd), a Napita (barber), a Kulamitra, an Ardhashareerin ; and also one who delivers himself up. 22. A person begotten by a Brahman upon a Shoodra female, is a Dasa if he has not received the sacrament ; he becomes a Napita on receiving the sacrament. 23. A son begotten by a Kshatriya on a Shoodra female, is known” by the name of Gopala ; Banishments undoubtedly may partake of his food. 24. A person begotten by a Brahman on a Vaishya female, on receiving the sacrament is known by the name of Ardhika ; Brahmans may no doubt partake of his food. 25 — 26. If among castes, whose food it is not allowable to partake, — water, or curd, or ghee, or milk contained in any vessel belonging to them, be unwittingly partaken by one — what should be the purification ? If a Brahman, or a Kshatriya, or a Vaisya, or a Shoodra comes to have an answer to the above question, — (then this is the answer). A fast and Brahma kricchra are the purifications for a member of any of the four castes. 27. But there is no fast prescribed for a Shoodra. He becomes pure by making a gift. Brdhmakurchcha together with a whole day’s fast would purify even a Svapaka. 28. Urine of the cow, cow-dung, milk, curd, and ghee, these five are the five articles derived from a cow. They, and water in which the kusa grass has been dipped, — are themselves pure, and therefore purify the sin. 29 — 31. Urine of a black cow ought to be taken; dung of a white cow ; milk of a copper-coloured cow ; and curd from the milk of a blood-coloured one ; the ghee from the milk of a tawny cow ; or all the five may be taken from a tawny cow. One pala of urine should be taken ; cow-dung as high as half the thumb; seven of milk, and three palas of curd ; one pala of ghee ; and one pala of water in which kusa grass has been dipped. 32. The cow’s urine should be gathered, with the reci- tation of the Gayatri verse ; the cow-dung, with the verse be- ginning with the word ‘ gandhadvaram ;’ the verse for taking milk begins with ‘ Aappyayasva.’ That for curd begins with * dadhikravno.’ 33. The verse to be recited when ghee is taken begins with the words, ^ 8’ulcramasi ; ‘ that for the water with the kusa grass dipped in it begins with the words ‘ devasya tva.’ The five articles derived from a cow, so sanctified by the recitation of the rig-veda verses, are to be placed near the fire. 34. The mixture should be agitated with the verse ‘ Apohishta, &c. ” ; then it should be again sanctified with the verse, * Maanastokay’ Not less than seven kusa grasses, with their thin ends uncut and intact, and which possess a fresh, shining colour like that of a parrot, should be used in taking up the mixture, and it should be thus made an offering of upon the fire. 35. The verses to be recited at the time of offering on the fire are those beginning respectively with the words, — *l7’dvaU;’ ^ Idan vishmi ^ Manastoke ; ^ and also the verse which has the word * sedum * in it. What remains after the offerings on the fire should be drunk by the Brahman. 36. When being drunk, it should be agitated with the recitation of the word * om called the “pranava “; it should be churned, and taken up and drunk, each act being accom- panied by the recitation of that word. 37. Whatever sin there may lie in the body of embodied beings, lurking in the skin or in the bones, — is wholly burnt by the ‘ Brahmakoorchcha ; ‘ as fuel is burnt by kindled fire. For, it is pure in all the three worlds, and gods themselves are within it. 38. The god Varuna is in the urine of the cow ; the god of sacrificial fire in the cow-dung ; the god of wind in the curd ; the moon in the milk ; and the sun in the ghee. 39. When drinking, should any water issue from the mouth and drop into the vessel ; that should be considered as not fit to be drunk ; one must perform the Chandrayana penance for it. 40 — 44. If a Brahman sees that the carcase of a dog, a jackal, or a monkey has fallen into a well; or that a bone, skin, or the like has fallen ; and if he has drunk of the polluted water ; or if he sees a corpse has fallen ; or the carcase of a crow, or an ordure-eating hog, an ass, a camel, a gavaya, an elephant, a peacock, a rhinoceros, a tiger, a bear, or a lion ; and if the dead body sinks into the well ; and if water of a tank so polluted be drunk ; the expiation will be for all the castes, in accordance with the following order. A Brah- man becomes pure by three nights’ fast ; a Kshatriya by two days’ fast ; a Vaisya by one day’s fast ; and a Shoodra by fasting for a night. 45. If food of one who never cooks for the Visvedevas, or of one who habitually eats in another man’s house, or of one who never cooks for giving food to others, be partaken by a Brahman, — he should perform the Chandrayana pen- ance. 46. If gifts are made by one who never cooks to give food to others, — they are fruitless, so far as the giver is concerned. Both he who gives and he who takes are destined to go to hell. 47. He,, who having accepted and set up the household fire, does not perform the five sacrifices, — the saints declare him to be ‘ a person averse to cook for the sake of others.’ 48. He, who every day raises in the morning, and, having himself performed the five sacrifices, subsists upon another’s food, — he is the ‘ person who eats in another’s house.’ 49. He, who being in the householder stage of life, is totally devoid of all acts of gift, is declared by saints ac- quainted with law, as ‘ a person who never cooks for others.’ 50. Different are the rules for each cyclical age ; the Brahmans who observe the religious rules prescribed for the particular age, are not deserving of lany censure ; for as the age is, so must the Brahmans be. 51. If ‘ hum ‘ (an exclamation of disrespect) be addressed to a Brahman ; or if a superior be addressed with ‘ thee and thou ; ‘ one should bathe, and fast for the rest of the day ; should bow down, and beg pardon. 52. If one strikes a Brahman even with a wisp of grass, or drags him with a piece of cloth thrown round his neck ; or wins even a lawsuit against him ; he should bow down and beg pardon. 53. For belabouring with a stick, the expiation is to fast an entire day ; for knocking a Brahman down, three nights’ fast ; if blood is drawn, the penance is atikricchra ; in case of inward bleeding, the Krichchhra is the penance. 54. One performing the Atikrichchhra penance is to sub- sist for nine days on as much food as may fill the palms of his hands ; and there ought to be a fast for three nights. This is called the Atikrichchhra penance. 55. When there takes place an intermixture of all the sins, the repetition of the Gayatri verse, ten thousand times, is the highest form of a purification. [The word ‘intermixture,’ ‘sankara’ in the original, seems to mean the commission of more than one sin by one person at the same time.] Doing 10,000 times gayathri japa will pure. End of the eleventh Chapter. 1. After dreaming a bad dream, or vomiting, or shav- ing, or sexual intercourse, or contact with smoke from a funeral pile, the purification is to wash oneself. 2. For swallowing unwittingly ordure or urine, or any food that has had a contact with spirituous liquor, the three regenerate castes must again undergo the sacramental rites. 3. In the second performance of the sacramental rites, the bearing of a skin garment, the string for the waist, the stick, and the ceremony of begging alms — are dispensed with. 4. With a view to purification, If he having swallowed ordure or urine, one should perform a Prajapatya ; should prepare and drink the five articles derived from a cow ; and should bathe : these render him pure. 5. What should be the expiation of the offender (Pratya- vasita) who tries to kill himself by falling into water, or fire, or by falling from a precipice, or by undertaking a journey for a suicidal purpose? 6. The three (inferior) castes are rendered pure by a double Prajapatya, by a pilgrimage to holy places, and by a gift of ten cows accompanied by a bull. 7 — 8. I shall now relate the expiation for a Brahman. He must go to a forest, and, at a spot where four roads meet, just shave his head, including the coronal lock, and then perform a double prajapatya. He is to give a fee of two cows. This is the purification prescribed by Parasol. He is thereby freed from that sin, and is restored to his Brahman caste. 9. The learned have declared five kinds of bathing to purificatory : the Agneya or fiery bathing, the Varuna or the watery bathing, the Brahma or Vedic bathing, the VAyavya or windy bathing, and the Divya or the celestial bathing. . 10 — 11. The Agneya bathing consists in bathing with ashes ; the Varuna is plunging into the water ; the Brahma consists in reciting the verse ‘ apohishta, &c. ;’ the Vayavya is bathing with the dust raised by the hoof of a cow ; but the celestial bathing takes place when one is drenched with, rain-water, the rain coming down while the sun is shining. This kind of bathing is of equal efficacy with the bathing in the river Ganga. 12 — 13. When a Brahman is going to bathe, all the gods, together with all the groups of the Pitrus, assume an airy form, and follow him, being thirsty, and desirous to have a drink of water. If the wet garment is wrung, they return, their hopes being unfulfilled; therefore, one should not wring his wet garment before offering libations of water to the Pitrus. 14. If, while offering libations of water to the Pitrus, one should place the sesamum seed in contact with the pores ^ at the root of the hair on the body, and should offer liba- tions with the seeds so placed, he should thereby be offering libations of blood. and impurities to the Pitrus, 15. If, after bathing, a Brahman shakes his dripping hair, or performs Achamana or (sipping water from the palm of his hand,) while yet he is in water, — he is not acceptable to the Pitrus and the gods. 16. If, while performing the rite of Achamana, he has his Lead or throat wrapped with cloth, or the posterior hem of Lies under-garment is not tucked up, or his coronal lock is not tied, or if he is without his sacred thread, he remains impure, in spite of the ceremony of Achamana. 17. When he has come out of the water, he should not perform Achamana in such a way that the drops may fall upon the water ; nor should he do so while in the water, in such a way as to let the drops of water fall upon the land ; he should perform it while touching both water and land; thereby he becomes pure on the land and in the water. 18. One should perform Achamana, after bathing, drink- ing, sneezing, eating, travelling on the road, and change ing his garment, although he may have performed it once before. 19. After sneezing, spitting, touching the teeth, or tell- ing a* lie, or holding conversation with sinful men, one should touch his right ear. 20. Fire, water, the gods, the moon, the sun, and the wind, all dwell in the right ear of a Brahman. 21. Bathing in the daytime, while being purified by the rays of the sun, is the approved form of bathing. Bathing at night is not approved unless when the Rahu is visible in the heavens. [Z e., when an eclipse of the moon takes place.] 22. Bathing, making of gifts, austerities, and burnt-offer- ings, may be made at night when an eclipse is seen. Night otherwise is impure ; therefore night is to be shunned in performing rites. 23. The Mouths, the Vases, the radars, the Amity’s, and other deities, all disappear with the moon. Therefore, gifts are not proper at night. 24. At the ceremony on the threshing-floor, at marriage, when the sun passes over from one Zodiacal sign to another, and during an eclipse, gifts are allowable in the night time ; but not allowable in any other case. 25. Making of gift at night is approved, if a son has been born, or at a sacrifice, or on the occasion of an obse- quial rite, or when an eclipse is visible ; but not approved in any other case. 26. The two praharas or watches in the middle of the night are called Mechanistic. During the pradosha, or the first watch of the night one may perform bathing, as in the day-time. Pradosha seems to be the first prahara after sunset.] 27. A tree on a burning-ground, a funeral pile, pus, a Chandala, and a seller of the Soma plant ; having touched any of these, — a Brahman should plunge into water with his clothing on. 28. Before the gathering of bones, one, having wept, should perform the ceremony of bathing. For a Brahman, (the gathering bones) should be performed within the tenth day Achamana should be performed after it : 29. When the sun or the moon is seized by rahu, [I. e., when a solar or a lunar eclipse takes place], all water becomes as pure as the water of the Ganga, so far as bathing and giving, and other religious rites are concerned. 30. Bathing performed with the kusa grass is purifica- tory ; a Brahman should makes Achamana with the kusa grass ; water taken up with the kusa grass is as holy as a drink of the Soma juice 31. Those who do not cherish the household fire, who are devoid of the daily conjunctional adorations, and who do not study the Veda, — they all are declared as S’lidras. 32. Therefore, for fear of being turned into a Shoodra, every Endeavour should be made, particularly by a Brahman, to study at least a portion of the Veda, (every day) in case he is unable to study the whole. 33. A Brahman subsisting, upon a S’lidra’s food, though he be engaged in constant study, in making burnt- offerings, and in reciting sacred verses, is not destined for an upward course. 34. To eat a Shoodra’s food, to associate with him, to sit in the same place with, him, and receive knowledge by his instruction, would cause degradation even to one who re- sembles the kindled fire. 35. A Brahman who gets his food habitually cooked by a Shoodra woman, or has got a Shoodra woman for the matron of his house, is shunned by the pitrus and the gods, and goes to the hell called Battrava. 36. If a Brahman fattens himself with the food of a Shoodra polluted by the impurity of birth or death, I do not know what (vile) animals he will be born (in subsequent lives). 37. Twelve times he will be born as a vulture ; ten times as a hog ; seven times as a dog ; this is what Manu has said. 38. To gain a fee, if a Brahman performs burnt-offer- ings, as an officiating priest, on a S’lidra’s behalf; ^le Brahman becomes a Shoodra, and the Shoodra a Brahman. ^ 39. If a Brahman sits down, having taken a vow of silence, — he should not speak ; if, while eating, he utters words, then he should cease to eat that food. 40. When his meal is but half finished, if he drinks water in that vessel, (which contains the food ?) — he thereby destroys all the virtuous works that he has done for the satisfaction of the gods and the Pitrus ; he likewise destroys his own soul. 41. While Brahmans are eating together, if one out of them leaves his plate before the others have finished their meal, he is a dunce ; he is the worst of sinners ; he is de- clared to be the killer of a Brahman. 42. While the vessels for food still remain in their presence, if the Brahmans utter the word of ‘farewell,* (‘svasti’ in the original), the gods in that case have not their hunger appeased ; and the ‘pitrus are disappointed. [Madhava says that before the vessels of food are washed, the cere mony ‘svastivachana’ should not take place. This ceremony con sists in the utterance of a certain Vedic verse in which the word ‘ svasti ‘ repeatedly occurs. It is preparatory to giving the fee to the’ Brahman and bidding him farewell ; ‘ svasti ‘ means ‘ well-being.’] 43. One should never take his meal, except after bathing, reciting the sacred verses, and making burnt-offerings on the fire ; nor should one eat off the reverse side of a leaf ; nor at night, without a light. 44. The householder, who is kind, devoted to reflecting on virtue and for the good of those whom he has to support, and strictly impartial is the most sensible. 45. With wealth acquired by righteous means, one should support himself. He who makes his living by unrighteous means, is unworthy to perform duty. 46. A person who preserves his sacred fire, a tawny cow, a person engaged in offering a sacrifice, a king, a religious mendicant, and the great ocean, — the very sight of these purifies one ; therefore one should constantly obtain a sight of them. 47. One should keep in his house the following things : the wood for striking out a sacrificial fire, a black cat, sandal-wood, a precious stone, ghee, sesamum seed, a black skin, and a goat. 48. A piece of land, upon which may stand, without being closely tied, a hundred cows, and a single bull — ten times the area of such a field -is called a gocharma (cow’s hide) of land. 49. By making a gift of a gocharma quantity of land, a person is freed from all sins, such as the killing of a Brahman, and like other sins, which he may have com- mitted, by word of mouth, or in thought, or in deed. 50. If a gift is made to a person who has a family to support, to an indigent person specially to one learned in the Veda, — that gift becomes a source of good. 51. A person who wrongfully appropriates land can never be pure, although be may excavate tanks, wells, reservoirs and the like, and perform a hundred Vajapeya and other sacrifices, or may present a crore of cows. 52. If a woman is in menstruation within eighteen days from the last time she was, simple bathing will purify her ; if after that period, the saint Ushanas has declared that the rule of three nights must be observed. 53. A person becomes impure by approaching a Handclap, a woman in confinement, a woman in menstruation, or a degraded sinner, within the distance of a yoke, or two yokes, or three yokes, or four yokes, in the reverse order. [A yoke is a particular measure of length. ‘ In the reverse order,’ I. ^., the rule of one yoke’s length applies to a degraded sinner and ^o on.] 54. If a Brahman comes nearer than the aforesaid lengths, he should bathe with his clothing on; if, unwit- tingly he comes in contact (with any of them), he should bathe, and then look at the sun. 55. When his hands exist, if a Brahman, wanting in knowledge, drinks water with his mouth plunged into it [like a beast], he surely shall be born as a dog (in his next birth). 56 — 57. If a man, being angry, calls his wife by the name of a relation with whom sexual intercourse is prohi- bited by law, and if he again desires to treat her as a wife ; then he must proclaim his sins in a meeting of Brahmans ; he must there say, — ‘ I have done so, while I was fatigued, or angry, or senseless, or hungry, or thirsty, or terrified.’ If a Brahman has failed to fulfill a promise of making a gift, or a vow of performing a religious rite ; — the expiation is three days’ fast. 58. ^ He should, at a confluence of great rivers, bathe three times, at dawn, noon, and sunset. After completing the expiation, be should give away a cow, and feast ten Brahmans. 59. If a Brahman eats the food of a wicked Brahman addicted to forbidden deeds, he must observe one day’s fast, ; . 60,. Within the same day, he may become pure, if he would eat the food of a Brahman who leads a religious life, and is versed in the Veda and its branches. 61. If a person dies in contact with impurities from the I upper part of the body or the lower part of the body, or I if he dies while not in direct contact with the surface of the ground, or if he dies while he was affected with some ring purity on account of a relative’s birth or death, his line.,. should perform three Krichchhras, [‘ To die not in direct* contact with the surface of the ground ‘ J is the translation of the ‘ antariksha mrita ‘ in the original. It \ literally means ‘ dying in the air ‘ vr ‘ in a vacant space.’ An instance ^ is when a person dies, while lying down on a bedstead.] I 62. A Kricchhra consists in reciting the Gayatri verse/ ten thousand times ; or reciting the Pranayama two hundred times ; or bathing twelve times in a holy place, without^ drying the head after each bath ; or in making a pilgrimage to a distance of two ‘yojanas’ (eight kroshas). 63. If a householder willingly causes the discharge of his virile seed otherwise than in sexual intercourse, he should recite the Gayathri verse one thousand times, and should perform three Pranayamas. 64. A Brahman, versed in the four Vedas, should in a proper form, propound, by way of expiation for killing a Brahman, a visit to the dyke on the sea (constructed by sethu near Cape Comorian) . 65. The sinner, staying at the spot where the dyke was made, must live by begging from the four castes ; must shun persons of wicked deeds; and must not use an umbrella, nor wear shoes. 66. He is to proclaim himself thus : — ” I am a sinner ; I have committed a heinous sin ; I have killed a Brahman ; I am standing at the door of the house, with the expectation of getting some alms.” 67. He should likewise dwell in the midst of cows, with- in villages or cities ; or in places of hermitage, or of pil- grimage ; or near the sources of rivers. 68 — 69. At these, he is to proclaim his sin. By visiting the holy sea, extended over a breadth of ten yojanas, and over a length of one hundred yojanas, and piled up with the dyke constructed by the monkey Nala at the command of Ramachandra, and by looking at the dyke, one is freed from the sin of killing a Brahman. 70. His soul being purified by a sight of the sea, he should plunge into the sea. Or if he be a king, ruling a territory, he should perform a horse-sacrifice. 71 . Coming back, he reaches his house for dwelling there, with his sons and his servants, where he is to give a feast to the Brahman s, and he is to give a fee of one hundred cows to such Brahmans as are proficient in the four Vedas. 72. The killer of a Brahman is freed from his sin, if the Brahmans are prepared to give him a solution. [This seems to imply, that if the Brahmans are satisfied that his expiation has been properly performed, and express an opinion to that effect, the sinner is freed from the sin.] 73. The visit to the Setubandha has been declared to be the form of expiation proper for a person whose residence is to the north of the Vindhya hill. This is the opinion of Parasara. 74. For killing a woman, engaged in performing a religi- ous sacrifice, the same expiation, which is prescribed for killing a Brahman, must be undergone. 75. A Brahman who has drunk wine must go to a river that falls into the sea; he must perform a Chandrayana, which being finished, he is to give a feast to the Brahmans, and by way of a fee, he is to give a cow and a bull to the Brahmans. 76. If a Brahman has drunk wine only once, he must drink flaming hot spirituous liquor ; thereby he will purify himself, both as regards this world, and as regards the other world. 77. If gold belonging to a Brahman be stolen by one, he is to take a pestle in his hand, and of his- own accord to come before the king, in order that the king may kill him. 78. If he is let off by the king, or if he is killed, — in either case, he is freed from the sin. If the theft has been willingly committed, it is then that he is fit to be killed 79. As a drop of oil spreads over the water, — so is sin transmitted from one person to another, by reason of sitting, sleeping, travelling, talking, and eating together with a sinner. 80. The chandrayana penance, the eating of unripe bar- ley, the form of making a gift, called the Tulapurusha, [I, e., making a gift of such a quantity of any substance as is equal in weight to a male human being], and the act of walking behind cows, — these put an end to all kinds of sin. 81. This compilation of the ordinances of law, consist- ing of five hundred and ninety-two slokas, is the work of Parasara. 82. In accordance with the rules for studying (similar works), these institutes of law should be carefully studied, without fail, by a person who desires to go to heaven. Must be read sincerely who wish to attain Swarga! End of the Twelfth Chapter. END OF PARASHARA SMRITHI



  1. Killing of a certain animal makes me impure, in order to become pure again i should give 48 hands of sesam seeds to a brahmin. This just doesn’t make sense. This entire text, most of it doesn’t make sense. Whats the deal with all of these rituals etc.?

    All the vedas are full with this kind of stuff. Isn’t the veda’s a exoteric text of say 80% doing these things? and then the rest is more esoteric stuff, more looking at the root of the problem? ie mind.. jnana type of stuff?

    How am i suppose to take all of this kali yuga stuff?

    Most of the things in your other post, the words (rituals) used are not even known to me, the west, the east even? and it seems more for a brahmin also it seems more for people not in the kali age if you ask me.

    The dharma part is clear however the do this after this ‘rule’ book that you just translated or copied and the veda’s are so confusing. How should a person today live?

    And is karma-yoga not superior then all these rules?

    • There is so many levels to knowledge.
      Yes, I understand it does not make sense to the average person. Most of everything doesn’t really make any sense because the knowledge of what all this is and why is not understood, specially f your from another culture. Notice it is for the dvija, a twice born. Unless you know what that is and have gone thru the proper initiations and rituals and have the proper teachings none of this would then really be for you.
      And yes, all of the ancient texts are full of this stuff.
      Imagine this for a moment, a person of all of this knowledge spends 1/3 of their waking hours doing rituals and stuff. Just the same as a yogi doesn’t walk around in society selling yoga mats and talking about spirituality but is actually in a lifestyle that is not of that world.
      So how to be in kali yuga? Well, isn’t that the greatest question?
      This is the text of dharma in kali yuga, so you can see how far we are from it. Is it even possible to live any of this in modern society and the modern world? Yet this is where all the deep understanding of everything is. Do we eat what we desire or do we follow our intellect?
      Other texts are for the other yugas, Manusmriti was the dharmashastra for satya yuga.
      There are four yogas. None of them are superior to another but made for different types of people. Bhakti is easy in a way. Just blind belief. But then again, there are many levels to that as well. Vaishnav path is just as specific and detailed.
      Does anything that one does not understand or that does not fit into their belief paradigm make it a dogma? Or maybe there are levels to all of it as well as levels to different lives.
      How to live today? Live in the modern world and by its rules if you live in the modern world. best not to try to be something that one is not and best to not be something different from what is acceptable in their culture. I think a guy named Chanakya said that. 😉
      Everyone has their karma which will pull them where they are to be.
      The answer to your question is actually to vast.
      Most high knowledge is lost in kali yuga. Anyone with access to any level of it will agree. So you do your best. Everyone is also in a different place of being able to understand this stuff as well as even follow any of it. Ignorance rules. its all just part of it. Many variables.

      • Veda’s is for other yuga’s mostly but also for initiates in varna?
        Then vedanta is more the deeper understanding of the veda’s?
        and stuff like the gita is what we today (average joe) has to follow?

        Are there any other parts in this picture missing?

      • Veda study is by initiation. Vedanta is the highest philosophy, highest human wisdom, containing schools of dualism and nondualism. It is the deeper study of everything that comes from the upanishad. Brahmasutra is the collective text of Vedanta. Upanishad comes from Veda and there are many many of them coming from each of the 4 Veda. They contain the essence of Veda. Much of this i could explain is like a huge triangle of blocks much like a pyramid. Veda is vast and takes several lifetimes of study. As you may already understand, there is just so much to all of this.
        There is vidya and paravidya. Mundane knowledge is stuff that one can learn in the world about the world. Higher knowledge takes a teacher to extrapolate it as well as there is a transmission that goes along with it. Each upanishad has its own sadhanas that go along with the study. Although you can just go read a translated to english version that leaves you nothing but to come up with your own perspective from your own limited perception, what I am speaking to is not that.
        Veda is not for other yugas. But what we fail to comprehend is the complexity and the hierarchy or the ladder and where we actually are on that ladder and this is kali yuga’s effect. The ignorance is that we think we are so advanced and high and mighty and we are blind to what we have no knowledge or experience of. The place from where we understand and see everything is then a limitation in its self. For example ones simple lack of comprehension of what veda is would lead them to having all sorts of ideas that become only limitations and obstructions. This is why one needs to be a student and not come to conclusions to make a belief of something without deep study and experience and understanding.
        So this is why I said the question you asked before, the answer is to vast. How is one to live in Kali yuga? Depends upon where they are on that ladder of course. You do your best. It is all ones own karma anyway.
        Yes, there is alot that is missing from your picture of what you wrote above.

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