Six Enemies

RESTRAINT of the organs of sense, on which success in study and discipline
depends can be enforced by abandoning lust, anger, greed, vanity (mána), haughtiness
(mada), and overjoy (harsha).
Absence of discrepancy (avipratipatti) in the perception of sound, touch, colour,
flavour, and scent by means of the ear, the skin, the eyes, the tongue, and the nose, is
what is meant by the restraint of the organs of sense. Strict observance of the precepts of
sciences also means the same; for the sole aim of all the sciences is nothing but restraint
of the organs of sense.
Whosoever is of reverse character, whoever has not his organs of sense under his
control, will soon perish, though possessed of the whole earth bounded by the four
quarters. For example: Bhoja, known also by the name, Dándakya, making a lascivious
attempt on a Bráhman maiden, perished along with his kingdom and relations;
So also Karála, the Vaideha. Likewise Janamejaya under the influence of anger
against Bráhmans, as well as Tálajangha against the family of Bhrigus.
Aila in his attempt under the influence of greed to make exactions from Bráhmans,
as well as Ajabindu, the Sauvíra (in a similar attempt);
Rávana unwilling under the influence of vanity to restore a stranger’s wife, as well
as Duryodhana to part with a portion of his kingdom; Dambhodbhava as well as Arjuna
of Haihaya dynasty being so haughty as to despise all people;
Vátápi in his attempt under the influence of overjoy to attack Agastya, as well as the
corporation of the Vrishnis in their attempt against Dvaipáyana.
Thus these and other several kings, falling a prey to the aggregate of the six enemies
and having failed to restrain their organs of sense, perished together with their kingdom
and relations. Having driven out the aggregate of the six enemies, as well as Ambarísha
of Jámadagnya famous for his restraint of the organs of sense Nábhága long enjoyed the

HENCE by overthrowing the aggregate of the six enemies, he shall restrain the
organs of sense; acquire wisdom by keeping company with the aged; see through his
spies; establish safety and security by being ever active; maintain his subjects in the
observance of their respective duties by exercising authority; keep up his personal
discipline by receiving lessons in the sciences; and endear himself to the people by
bringing them in contact with wealth and doing good to them.
Thus with his organs of sense under his control, he shall keep away from hurting the
women and property of others; avoid not only lustfulness, even in dream, but also
falsehood, haughtiness, and evil proclivities; and keep away from unrighteous and
uneconomical transactions.
Not violating righteousness and economy, he shall enjoy his desires. He shall never
be devoid of happiness. He may enjoy in an equal degree the three pursuits of life, charity, wealth, and desire, which are inter-dependent upon each other. Any one of these
three, when enjoyed to an excess, hurts not only the other two, but also itself.
Kautilya holds that wealth and wealth alone is important, inasmuch as charity and
desire depend upon wealth for their realisation.
Those teachers and ministers who keep him from falling a prey to dangers, and who,
by striking the hours of the day as determined by measuring shadows
(chháyánálikápratodena) warn him of his careless proceedings even in secret shall
invariably be respected.
Sovereignty (rájatva) is possible only with assistance. A single wheel can never
move. Hence he shall employ ministers and hear their opinion.


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